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Thursday, March 31, 2011

Olympic Games


  • London hosts the Olympic Games from July 27 to Aug 12, 2012.
  • Work on London's Olympic Stadium completed on Tuesday 29.03.2011 when the last patch of turf was laid on the grass infield of the 80,000-seat venue.
  • The $777 million Olympic Stadium was finished under budget and three months ahead of schedule - less than three years after work began in May 2008 and 16 months before the opening ceremony on July 27, 2012


volcano

1) The Tambora volcano

is located in Sumbawa, Indonesia with a summit elevation of 2850 m.
2) The Krakatau volcano

is located in Sunda Strait, Indonesia with a summit elevation of 813 m.
3) The Mount Pelee

located in the Lesser Antilles island arc of the Caribbean with an elevation of 4583 feet.
4) The Nevado del Ruiz

located in the Tolima Department of Colombia that has an elevation of 17,388 ft.
On the ill-fated night of November 13, 1985, the Nevado del Ruiz volcano eruption had caused about 23,000 people to lost their lives.
The Nevado del Ruiz had generated a massive 35 million tonnes of erupted material during the historic 1985 eruption. In Volcanic Explosivity Index, the eruption has been marked against a value of 3.
5)The Unzen

is sited on the Kyushu island, Japan.





India Vs Pakistan in ICC Cricket World Cup







1992  ICC Cricket World Cup 
Pakistan Won the Cup defeating England by 22 Runs
The scores - Pakistan 249/6 (50 overs) & England 227 all out (49.2 overs)

India won by 43 runs @Sydney Cricket Ground, Sydney, Australia
The scores - India 217-6/7(49 Overs) &  Pakistan 173 (48.1 overs)



1996  ICC Cricket World Cup 
Sri Lanka won the cup by 7 wickets defeating Australia
The scores  Australia 241/7 (50 overs) & SriLanka 245/3 (46.2 overs)

India won by 39 runs @  Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore, India
The scores - India 287/8 (50 overs) & Pakistan 248/9 (49 overs) 


1999  ICC Cricket World Cup 
Australia won the cup by 8 wickets defeating Pakistan
The scores Pakistan 132 (39 overs) & Australia 133/2 (20.1 overs)

India won by 47 runs @ Old Trafford, Manchester, England
The scores - India 227/6 & Pakistan 180 (45.3 overs)


2003 ICC Cricket World Cup 
 Australia won by 125 runs defeating India
 The scores Australia 359/2 (50 overs) & India 234 (39.2 overs)


India won by 6 wickets @ Centurion Park, Centurion, South Africa
The scores India 276/4 (45.4 overs) & Pakistan 273/7 (50 overs)


2011 ICC Cricket World Cup 
India   defeat Pakistan by 29 Runs  in the Semi-final @ Mohali
 The Scores India 260/9 (50 Overs) & Pakistan 231/10 (49.5 Overs)



Man of the Match: Sachin Tendulkar for his 85 Runs

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

Richest people in the world


2011 Rank


2010
Rank
 Name

Country
Source
Net Worth
1
1
Carlos Slim Helu & family 
Mexica
Telecom 
$74 B
2
2
Bill Gates

USA
Microsoft
$56 B
3
3
Warren Buffett
USA
Berkshire Hathaway 
$50 B
4
7
Bernard Arnault
France
LVMH

$41 B
5
6
 Larry Ellison
USA
Oracle
$39.5 B
6
5
Lakshmi Mittal
India
Steel
$31.1 B
7
9
Amancio Ortega
Spain
 Zara
$31 B
8
8
Eike Batista
Brazil
Mining, Oi
$30 B
9
4
Mukesh Ambani
India
Petrochemicals, Oil & Gas
$27 B
10
12
Christy Walton & family
USA
 Walmart
$26.5 B

Czechoslovakia - The Dissolution


On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

History
 An estimated 150,000 Czech soldiers died in World War I. More than 100,000 Czech volunteers formed the Czechoslovak Legions in Russia, where they fought against the Central Powers and later against Bolshevik troops. Following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I, the independent republic of Czechoslovakia was created in 1918.This new country incorporated regions of Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Slovakia and the Carpathian Ruthenia (known as the Subcarpathian Rus at the time) with significant German, Hungarian, Polish and Ruthenian speaking minorities.
Czechoslovakia was created with the dissolution of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I (1914-18)
.On May 31, 1918, Czech and Slovak representatives in the United States signed the Pittsburgh Agreement endorsing a plan for a unified Czecho-Slovak state in which Slovakia would have its own assembly.
The Czechoslovak declaration of independence was published by the Czechoslovak National Council, signed by MasarykŠtefánikand Beneš on October 18, 1918 in Paris, and proclaimed on October 28 in Prague.
.Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk was elected the country's first president in the 1920 election.
Although Czechoslovakia was a unitary state, it provided what were at the time rather extensive rights to its minorities. However, it did not grant its minorities any territorial political autonomy.
Adolf Hitler took advantage of this opportunity and, supported by Konrad Henlein's Sudeten German Party, gained the largely German speaking Sudetenland (and its substantial Maginot Line like border fortifications), through the 1938 Munich Agreement.
Poland annexed the Zaolzie area around Český Těšín.
Hungary gained parts of Slovakia and the Subcarpathian Rus as a result of the First Vienna Award in November 1938.
The remainders of Slovakia and the Subcarpathian Rus gained greater autonomy, with the state renamed to "Czecho-Slovakia".After Nazi Germany threatened to annex part of Slovakia, allowing the remaining regions to be partitioned by Hungary and Poland, Slovakia chose to maintain its national and territorial integrity, seceding from Czecho-Slovakia in March 1939, and allying itself, as demanded by Germany, with Hitler's coalition.
The remaining Czech territory was occupied by Germany, which transformed it into the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
Subcarpathian Rus declared independence as the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine on 15 March 1939, but was invaded by Hungary the same day and formally annexed the next day.(Following a Soviet-organised referendum, the Subcarpathian Rus never returned under Czechoslovak rule, but became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, as the Zakarpattia Oblast in 1946) Approximately 345,000 Czechoslovak citizens, including 277,000 Jews, were killed or executed, while hundreds of thousands of others were sent to prisons and concentration camps or used as forced labour. Perhaps two–thirds of the Czech nation was destined either for extermination or removal.
There was Czech resistance to Nazi occupation, both at home and abroad, most notably with the assassination of Nazi leader Reinhard Heydrich in a Prague suburb on 27 May 1942. The Czechoslovak government-in-exile and its army fighting against the Germans were acknowledged by the Allies; Czechoslovak troops fought in the UK, North Africa, the Middle East and the Soviet Union. The German occupation ended on 9 May 1945, with the arrival of the Soviet and American armies and the Prague uprising. An estimated 140,000 Soviet soldiers died in the fighting for the liberation of Czechoslovakia.
In 1945–1946, almost the entire German minority in Czechoslovakia, about 2.7 million people, were expelled to Germany and Austria. During this time, thousands of Germans were held in prisons and detention camps, or used as forced labour. In the summer of 1945, there were several massacres. The only Germans not expelled were some 250,000, who had been active in the resistance against the Nazis or were considered economically important, though many of these emigrated later.

In the 1946 elections, the Communists gained 38% of the votes and became the largest party in the Czechoslovak parliament. They formed a coalition government with other parties of the National Front and moved quickly to consolidate power. The decisive step took place in February 1948, during a series of events characterized by Communists as a "revolution" and by anti-Communists as a "takeover", the Communist People's Militias secured control of key locations in Prague, and a new, all-Communist government was formed.
For the next 41 years, Czechoslovakia was a Communist state.In November 1989, Czechoslovakia returned to a liberal democracy through the peaceful "Velvet Revolution".

Czechoslovakia's Dissolution into -Czech Republic and Slovakia




Czech Republic Government
The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy, with the Prime Minister as head of government. The Parliament is bicameral, with the Chamber of Deputies  (200 members) and the Senate (81 members)

Czech Parliament




The President of the Czech Republic is selected by a joint session of the parliament for a five-year term, with no more than two consecutive terms. The president is a formal head of state.The Prime Minister is the head of government.The members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected for a four year term by proportional representation.The members of the Senate are elected in single-seat constituencies by two-round runoff voting for a six-year term, with one-third elected every even year in the autumn.The Senate is unpopular among the public and suffers from low election turnout.

       
Czech Republic                                                                                                 
       Flag Of Czech Republic                                                             
                                                                             



    Official Languages : German;Greek;Hungarian;Polish;Romani;Russian;Rusyn;Serbian;Slovak & Ukrainian
    Ethnic Groups :Czechs 90% ;Moravians 4% ; Slovaks 2% & Others 4%
    Population : 10674947 ( 2010 Estimate)
    Currency : Czech Kronar

  Religion  
The Czech Republic has one of the least religious populations on Earth. Historically, the Czech people have been characterised as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion".[74] According to the 2001 census, 59% of the country is agnostic, atheist or irreligious, 26.8% is Roman Catholic and 2.5% is Protestant.

Economy Of Czech Republic
The Czech Republic possesses a developed, high-income economy with a GDP per capita of 82% of the European Union average. One of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states.Most of the economy has been privatised, including the banks and telecommunications. The current centre-right government plans to continue with privatisation, including the energy industry and the Prague airport.
The Czech Republic has the most Wi-Fi subscribers in the European Union.



 Škoda Auto more commonly known as Škoda, is an automobile manufacturer based in the Czech Republic. Škoda became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group in 2000, positioned as the entry brand to the group.

Skoda Auto - 6 plants (4 in Europe, 2 in India)

             Skoda Fabia II ( 2007)


       Skoda Superb II (2008)


 

 

 

 

 

Škoda Yeti (2009)

                           

 

 

 

   

 


                       

 

Science 

The Czech Republic has a rich scientific tradition. Important inventions include the modern contact lens, the separation of modern blood types, and the production of the Semtex plastic explosive.

         
The country is part of the Schengen Area, having abolished border controls, completely opening its borders with all of its neighbours, Germany, Austria, Poland and Slovakia, on 21 December 2007.                                                                          
                                                                

Recognition
Czechoslovakia's membership in the United Nations ceased upon dissolution of the country, but on 19 January 1993 the Czech and Slovak Republics were admitted to the UN as new and separate states.

Currency

Initially the old Czechoslovak currency, the Czechoslovak koruna, was  used in both countries.
Fears of economic loss on the Czech side caused the two states to adopt two national currencies as early as 8 February 1993.
 At the beginning, the currencies had an equal exchange rate, but later on, for most of the time, the value of the Slovak koruna was lower than that of the Czech koruna (up to ca. 30%, in 2004 around 25–27%). 
On 1 January 2009 Slovakia adopted the euro as its currency.

Movement

People of both countries were allowed to cross the border without a passport and were allowed to work anywhere without the need to obtain an official permit. Border checks were completely removed on 21 December 2007 when both countries joined the Schengen Agreement.


Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe,bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south.


                                                                                          

          Flag Of Slovakia                                                                                                   


                                                                                                









Capital :Bratislava
Population :5429763( 2010 Estimate )
Ethnic Groups:  Slovak         86% ;
                        Hungarian   10%  
                        Others         4%
Official Language : Slovak
Currency             : Euro
    


Government
Slovakia is a parliamentary democratic republic with a multi-party system.The Slovak head of state is the president elected by direct popular vote for a  5 year term.

Slovakia's Presidential Palace in Bratislava



Slovakia's highest legislative body is the 150-seat unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic Delegates are elected for a 4 year term on the basis of proportional representation.

Religion
The Slovak constitution guarantees freedom of religion.Roman Catholics-60.4% ;nonreligious or atheist - 9.6% ;Protestant-6% ; Greek Catholic - 4.1% ; Eastern Orthodox -0.9% and 19% chose "other" to identify themselves.


Economy
The Slovak economy is considered an advanced economy, with the country dubbed the "Tatra Tiger". Slovakia transformed from a centrally planned economy to a market-driven economy.
Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in private hands, and foreign investment has risen.Slovakia has recently been characterized by sustained high economic growth.
In 2006, Slovakia achieved the highest growth of GDP (8.9%) among the members of the OECD.
Slovakia's GDP comes mainly from the tertiary (services) sector, the industrial sector also plays an important role within its economy.
The main industry sectors are car manufacturing and electrical engineering.
Since 2007, Slovakia has been the world's largest producer of cars per capita, with a total of 571,071 cars manufactured in the country in 2007 alone.There are currently three automobile assembly plants: Volkswagen's in Bratislava, PSA Peugeot Citroen's in Trnava and Kia Motors' Žilina Plant.



Yugoslavia - The Partition / Break -Up


The Partition of Yugoslavia refers to a series of conflicts and political upheavals resulting in the dissolution of the  Yugoslavia(the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia).  
Yugoslavia was a country that occupied a strip of land stretching from present-day Central Europe  to the Balkans  — a region with a history of ethnic conflict.

From the end of World War II until 1980,Yugoslavia was under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito - was a Federation of Socialist Republics.

After the death of Tito,some of the six Republics started seeking greater freedom from Central Control.

In 1990after the fall of Soviet Union each of the Republics held elections .
Croatia and Slovenia elected Pro-Independence Candidates
Serbia and Montenegro continued for Yugoslav Unity

The country was a conglomeration of 6 Regional Republics and 2 Autonomous Provinces that was roughly divided on ethnic lines and split up in the 1990s into several independent countries namely -
Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina ,Montenegro,Serbia
and two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina 




Slovenia
On June 25, 1991, Slovenia and Croatia became the first republics to declare independence from Yugoslavia.

 











Capital                          : Ljubljana
Official Language        : Slovene
Currency                       : EURO
Population                    :2,048,951( 2010 Estimate)
Independence              : June 25,1991



                                          
Flag of Slovenia
                      











The first clear demand for Slovene independence was made in 1987.
A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights,pushed the Communists in the direction of democratic reforms.
In April 1990, the first democratic elections in Slovenia took place and the united opposition movement DEMOS  led by Joze Pucnik  emerged victorious.
In the same year more than 88% of the electorate voted for a sovereign and independent Slovenia. 
This was followed on 25 June 1991 by a declaration of independence
.The very next day, the newly-formed state was attacked by the Yugoslav Army.

After a 10-dat war  a truce was called and in October 1991 the last soldiers of the Yugoslav Army left.
The European Union(EU)  recognised Slovenia in January 1992, and the UN  accepted it as a member in May 1992. Slovenia joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. In 2004 Slovenia also joined NATO 

Slovenia is a Parliamentary Democracy Republic with a Multi-Party System . The Head of State  is the President  who is elected by popular vote every 5 years to maximum 2 consecutive terms, and has mainly advisory and ceremonial duties.
The Executive and Administrative Authority in Slovenia is held by the Govt. of Slovenia headed by the PM and the council of miinisters or cabinet, who are elected by the National Assembly  which consists of 90 members.

National Assembly


                                                                       










Croatia


 

 

 

 

 

Capital: Zagreb 

Official Language:Croatian 

 Currency :Kuna(HRK)
 Population :4,486,881( 2010 Estimate)
Independence: Oct 08,1991

  

 


Flag of Croatia












Croatia declared independence from socialist Yugoslavia in 1991.War broke out in 1991 with Yugoslavia National Army  open attacks on Croatia.At the end of 1991 there was full-scale war in Croatia.The war was between the Serbs, in what had been the Republic of Serbia in the former Yugoslavia, and Croats in the newly independent Croatia. The reasons for the war are quite complex. To greatly simplify, while Croatia and Slovenia  wanted to separate from Yugoslavia, Serbs were largely unwilling to allow this to happen, probably largely for economic reasons.

Croatia operated a Semi-Presidential System  until 2000 when it switched to a Parliamentary System
The President is the Head of the State directly elected to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of two terms.
The Govt. of Croatia   is headed by the PM who has two deputy prime ministers and 14 ministers in charge of particular sectors of activity.
he Parliament of Croatia  is a Unicameral  legislative body (a second chamber, the "House of Counties", which was set up by the Constitution of 1990, was abolished in 2001). The number of the members can vary from 100 to 160; they are all elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms.

Government's official residence is at Banski dvori.
                                                                                  








 

 

 

 

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

 

 

 

 

 

 

got independence on March 1,1992

Capital:Sarajevo

Official Language:Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian

Population : 3,842,566 (2011 Estimate)

Ethnic Groups :Bosniaks 48%;Serbs 37% & Croats 14% 

                                                                       Flag Of Bosnia and Herzegovina


 

 

 

 

  

The Serb members of parliament, consisting mainly of the Serb Democratic Party members, abandoned the central parliament in Sarajevo, and formed the Assembly of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 24 October 1991, which marked the end of the tri-ethnic coalition that governed after the elections in 1990.

A declaration of Bosnia and Herzegovina sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a referendum for independence from Yugoslavia in February and March 1992 boycotted by the great majority of the Serbs. The turnout in the independence referendum was 63.4 per cent and 99.7 per cent of voters voted for independence.

 Bosnia and Herzegovina is a parliamentary republic, which has a bicameral legislature and a 3 member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. 

The Parliamentary Assembly is the lawmaking body in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

It consists of 2 houses: the House of Peoples and the House of Representatives.

The House of Peoples has 15 delegates, two-thirds of which come from the Federation (5 Croat and 5 Bosniaks) and one-third from the Republika Srpska (5 Serbs). The House of Representatives is composed of 42 Members, two-thirds elected from the Federation and one-third elected from the Republika Srpska.

                                                        Bosnian Parliament Building

The Chair of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina rotates among three members (Bosniak, Serb, Croat), each elected as the Chair for an eight-month term within their four-year term as a member. The three members of the Presidency are elected directly by the people (Federation votes for the Bosniak/Croat, Republika Srpska for the Serb).
The Chair of the Council of Ministers is nominated by the Presidency and approved by the House of Representatives.


Macedonia - Republic of Macedonia




































got independence on 8 September 1991 
Capital:Skopje
Official Language: Macedonian
Ethnic Groups:Macedonian65%;Albanian24%;Turkish3%;Roma4% and Others4%
Population - 2,114,550 (2009 Estimate)
Currency - Macedonian Dinar(MKD)


Flag of Macedonia
































Religion
Christianity is the majority faith of the Republic of Macedonia, with 64.7% of the population belonging to the Macedonian branch of Orthodoxy.
 Muslims comprise 33.3% of the population; Macedonia has the fourth-highest proportion of Muslims in Europe, after those of Kosovo (90%), Albania(70%), and Bosnia-Herzegovina (48%).Most Muslims are AlbanianTurkish, or Roma, although some are Macedonian Muslims.


Macedonia is a parliamentary democracy with an executive government composed of a coalition of parties from the unicameral legislature.The Assembly is made up of 120 seats and the members are elected every 4 years. The role of the President of the Republic is mostly ceremonial, with the real power resting in the hands of the President of the Government. The President is the commander-in-chief of the state armed forces and a president of the state Security Council. The President is elected every 5 years and can be elected twice at most.


The country's main political divergence is between the largely ethnically based political parties representing the country's ethnic Macedonian majority and Albanian minority. 
The issue of the power balance between the two communities led to a brief war in 2001, following which a power-sharing agreement was reached. In August 2004, Macedonia's parliament passed legislation redrawing local boundaries and giving greater local autonomy to ethnic Albanians in areas where they predominate.
Macedonia became a member state of the United Nations on April 8, 1993, eighteen months after its independence from Yugoslavia. It is referred to within the UN as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", pending a resolution of the long-running dispute with Greece about the country's name.








Montenegro    -    meaning "Black Mountain"


The status of the union between Montenegro and Serbia was decided by the referendum on Montenegrin independence on 21 May 2006. A total of 419,240 votes were cast, representing 86.5% of the total electorate. 230,661 votes (55.5%) were for independence and 185,002 votes (44.5%) were against.The 2006 referendum was monitored by five international observer missions.
On 3 June 2006, the Montenegrin Parliament declared the independence of Montenegro formally confirming the result of the referendum. Serbia did not object to the declaration.






             Flag of Montenegro









got independence on  3 June 2006
(however independence day celebrated on May 21)
Capital: Podgorica
Official Language: Montenegrin
Population - 666730 (2009 Estimate)
Currency - Euro




major ethnic groups: Montenegrins,SerbsBosniaksMuslimsAlbanians and Croats.
Religion
Most Montenegrin inhabitants are Orthodox Christians74%. There is a sizeable number of Sunni Muslims18%.There is also a small Roman Catholic population4%.


Montenegro is an independent and sovereign republic that proclaimed its new constitution on 22 October 2007.The President of Montenegro  is the head of state, elected for a period of five years through direct elections.                                          Presidential Palace Cetinje


The Parliament of Montenegro is a unicameral legislative body consisting of 81 seats.




Serbia -  officially the Republic of Serbia
Capital - Belgrade
Official Languages - Serbian
Population - 7306677 (2010Estimate)
Currency - Serbian Dinar(RSD)
Ethnic Groups - Serbs 83%;Hungarians 4%;Bosniaks2% and Others 11%


























                                                              Flag Of Serbia
History
 In the early 19th century the Serbian revolution reestablished the country as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory and pioneered the abolition of feudalism in Southeast Europe.
Following World War I, Serbia formed Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples which existed in several forms up until 2006, when Serbia retrieved its independence.
Out of roughly 1,000,000 casualties in all of Yugoslavia up until 1944 around 250,000 were citizens of Serbia of different ethnicities, according to Zundhauzen. The overall number of ethnic Serb casualties in Yugoslavia was around 530,000, out of whom up to 400,000 in the NDH genocide campaign.
The communist takeover resulted in abolition of the monarchy, ban on the royal family's return and a subsequent orchestrated constitutional referendum on the republic-socialist type of government.
In the aftermath of the victory of the communist Yugoslav Partisans, a totalitariansingle-party state was soon established in Yugoslavia by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. . Serbia became a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia known as the Socialist Republic of Serbia and had a republic-branch of the federal Communist party, the League of Communists of Serbia.
Slobodan Milošević rose to power in Serbia in 1989 in the League of Communists of Serbia through a series of coups against incumbent governing members. Milošević promised reduction of powers for the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. This ignited tensions with the communist leadership of the other republics that eventually resulted in the secession of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovinaand Macedonia from Yugoslavia.
Multiparty democracy was introduced in Serbia in 1990, officially dismantling the former one-party communist system.
In 1992, the governments of Serbia and Montenegro agreed to the creation of a new Yugoslav federation called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which abandoned the predecessor SFRY's official endorsement of communism, and instead endorsed democracy.
Milošević represented the Bosnian Serbs at the Dayton peace agreement in 1995, signing the agreement which ended the Bosnian War that internally partitioned Bosnia & Herzegovina largely along ethnic lines into a Serb republic and a Bosniak-Croat federation.
In September 2000, opposition parties accused Milošević of electoral fraud. A campaign of civil resistance followed, led by the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS), a broad coalition of anti-Milošević parties. This culminated on 5 October when half a million people from all over the country congregated in Belgrade, compelling Milošević to concede defeat. The fall of Milošević ended Serbia's international isolation. Milošević was sent to the ICTY on accusations of sponsoring war crimes during the breakup of Yugoslavia, which he was held on trial to until his death in 2006.From 2003 to 2006, Serbia was part of the "State Union of Serbia and Montenegro." This union was the successor to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 21 May 2006, Montenegro held a referendum to determine whether or not to end its union with Serbia. The next day, state-certified results showed 55.4% of voters in favor of independence. This was just above the 55% required by the referendum.
On 5 June 2006, the National Assembly of Serbia declared Serbia to be the legal successor to the former state union. Serbia regained its independence in 2006, after 88 years in various federations.
Religion
Orthodox Christian comprise about 84% of the entire population.Catholics in Serbia, roughly 6.2% of the population. Bosniaks are the largest Muslim community in Serbia with 140,000 followers or 2% of the total population, followed by Albanians whereas some Roma are Muslim.
Protestantism accounts for about 1.1% of the country's population, chiefly among Reformist Hungarians and Slovaks in Vojvodina.

Serbia has two autonomous provinces: Vojvodina in the north and Kosovo and Metohija in the south. The area that lies between Vojvodina and Kosovo is called Central Serbia.





Vojvodina
officially called Autonomous Province of Vojvodina.
is an autonomous province in Serbia.
 capital and largest city is Novi Sad.
 there are more than 26 ethnic groups  
has 6 official languages - SerbianHungarian,SlovakRomanian,Croatian & Pannonian Rusyn


Kosovo and Metohija
Capital - Pristina
Ethnic Groups - Albanians 88%;Serbs 7% and Others 5%
Population - 1,804,838 (2007 Estimate)
Currency - Euro;Serbian Dinar
is a disputed territory following the collapse of Yugoslavia. The partially recognised Republic of Kosovo  a self-declared independent state, has de facto control over most of the territory, with North Kosovo being the largest Kosovo Serb enclave. Serbia does not recognise the unilateral secession of Kosovo and considers it a United Nations-governed entity within its sovereign territory, the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija according to the 2006 Constitution of Serbia.






Kosovo War


By 1996 the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), an ethnic Albanian guerilla group, had prevailed over the non-violent resistance movement and had started offering armed resistance to Serbian and Yugoslav security forces, resulting in early stages of the Kosovo War.
By 1998, as the violence had worsened and displaced scores of Albanians, Western interest had increased. The Serbian authorities were compelled to sign a ceasefire and partial retreat, monitored by OSCE observers according to an agreement negotiated by Richard Holbrooke. However, the ceasefire did not hold and fighting resumed in December 1998. 
The Račak massacre in January 1999 in particular brought new international attention to the conflict. Within weeks, a multilateral international conference was convened and by March had prepared a draft agreement known as theRambouillet Accords, calling for restoration of Kosovo's autonomy and deployment of NATOpeacekeeping forces. The Serbian party found the terms unacceptable and refused to sign the draft.
Between March 24 and June 10, 1999, NATO intervened by bombing Yugoslavia aimed to force Milošević to withdraw his forces from Kosovo. This military action was not authorised by the Security Council of the United Nations and was therefore contrary to the provisions of the United Nations Charter.
Combined with continued skirmishes between Albanian guerrillas and Yugoslav forces the conflict resulted in a further massive displacement of population in Kosovo. Roughly a million ethnic Albanians fled or were forcefully driven from Kosovo.
On June 10, 1999, the UN Security Council passed UN Security Council Resolution 1244, which placed Kosovo under transitional UN administration (UNMIK) and authorised KFOR, a NATO-led peacekeeping force. Resolution 1244 provided that Kosovo would have autonomy within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and affirmed the territorial integrity of Yugoslavia, which has been legally succeeded by the Republic of Serbia.



Declaration of independence


Republic of Kosovo declared independence on 17 February 2008 from Serbia.
 75 UN states recognise the independence of Kosovo and it has become a member country of the IMF and World Bank as the Republic of Kosovo.
The UN Security Council remains divided on the question (as of 4 July 2008). Of the five members withveto power, USA, UK, and France recognised the declaration of independence, and the People's Republic of China has expressed concern, while Russia considers it illegal
The European Union has no official position towards Kosovo's status.
On 8 October 2008, the UN General Assembly resolved to request the International Court of Justice to render an advisory opinion on the legality of Kosovo's declaration of independence from Serbia.
The advisory opinion, which is legally non-binding but had been expected to carry "moral" weight was rendered on 22 July 2010, holding that Kosovo's declaration of independence was not in violation of international law.




Serbs reject Kosovo Albanian rule in referendum - Feb 17,2012


Kosovo has about 120,000 ethnic Serbs, of whom 40,000 live in the north and the rest in scattered enclaves to the south.
Kosovo Serb officials said 99.7% of voters said "no" to the Kosovo government in Pristina.

Ethnic Serbs in northern Kosovo have rejected rule by the territory's ethnic Albanian majority, in a referendum criticised by Serbia and the EU.

About 90% of Kosovo's population is ethnic Albanian, but Serbs dominate a northern area bordering on Serbia.Kosovo Serbs have ignored Pristina's decisions and obstructed the EU and Nato law and order mission in Kosovo.
The Kosovo parliament in Pristina denounced the Serbs' referendum this week in a resolution, saying it "does not produce any legally and politically binding effect and as such is not valid".