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Thursday, November 30, 2017

First Sikh Woman Elected as Mayor in the US

Preet Didbal has been elected as the mayor of Yuba city in California, becoming the first Sikh woman to hold the position in the United States. Dibal was appointed by the California city council and will be sworn in on December05,2017

Preet Didbal was elected to Yuba City Council in 2014 and is currently vice mayor. She is the first in her family to graduate from college

There are other Sikh mayors across the country — Ravi Bhalla was elected earlier this month as mayor in Hoboken, New Jersey.

On November 8, Bhalla became the first ever Sikh mayor of New Jersey’s Hoboken city after a stiff competition that turned ugly when he was labelled a terrorist in slanderous flyers.
The Sikh Coalition estimates around 500,000 people who follow the Sikh faith live in the United States.

Upcoming Hindi Films in December 2017

Firangi - December 1 


Kapil Sharma is back to Bollywood with his second movie outing Firangi. It kicks off the December, releasing on December 1 amid high expectations. Set in the pre-independence 1920 India, Firangi is based on the life of Manga, a firm British Raj supporter who undergoes a complete change of heart

Tera Intezaar - December 1 


Sunny Leone and Arbaaz Khan's Tera Intezaar is a twisted tale of lies and betrayal. This musical-romantic thriller is directed by Raajeev Walia. It also stars Arya Babbar and Gauahar Khan in pivotal roles. 

Fukrey Returns - December 8 


A sequel to 2013 hit Fukrey, Fukrey Returns brings back the funny bromance between Hunny (Pulkit Samrat) and Choocha (Varun Sharma). In addition, they also have Lali (Manjot Singh) and Zafar (Ali Fazal) in the gang to re-create the laughter riot that the original was. Richa Chadha's reprises her badass Bholi Punjaban avatar.

Monsoon Shootout - December 15 


Nawazuddin Siddiqui's much-anticipated Monsoon Shootout releases on December 15. Featuring Nawaz in a grey skin-head avatar, Monsoon Shootout premiered at Cannes Film Festival 2013 and even bagged a nomination under the Golden Camera category

Tiger Zinda Hai - December 22 


Tiger Zinda Hai is a sequel to the 2012 blockbuster Ek Tha Tiger. Bringing back the jodi of Salman Khan and Katrina Kaif, this Ali Abbas Zafar directorial is easily one of the most-awaited films of the year. Its songs and trailer have already created an uproar among audiences. Will the action thriller live up to the expectations of the original? It hits the screens on December 22.

2017 -18 West Indies Tour of New Zealand - NZ Vs WI First Test @ Basin Reserve ,Wellington Dec 01-05,2017

Day One Friday Dec 01,2017

NZ won the toss and chose to field


New Zealand

  • Tom Latham
  • Jeet Raval
  • Kane Williamson(c)
  • Ross Taylor
  • Henry Nicholls
  • Tom Blundell(wk)
  • Mitchell Santner
  • Colin de Grandhomme
  • Matt Henry
  • Neil Wagner
  • Trent Boult

West Indies

  • Kraigg Brathwaite
  • Kieran Powell
  • Shimron Hetmyer
  • Shai Hope
  • Roston Chase
  • Sunil Ambris
  • Shane Dowrich(wk)
  • Jason Holder(c)
  • Kemar Roach
  • Miguel Cummins
  • Shannon Gabriel

West Indies were  all-out for 134 in 45.4 Overs
NZ Bowling
Neil Wagner  7/39(14.4 Overs)
Trent Boult    2/36(16 Overs)

Neil Wagner was twice on a hat-trick to take career-best figures of 7-39, helping New Zealand dismiss the West Indies for 134 and take control of the first cricket test on Friday.

The West Indies reached 59-0 before losing all 10 wickets for 75 runs in the face of Wagner’s onslaught of accurate, short-pitched bowling. A last wicket partnership of 29 between Kemar Roach (14 not out) and Shannon Gabriel (10 made the collapse less severe.

New Zealand, playing its first test since March and its first against the West Indies in three years, was 85-2 at stumps with Jeet Raval 29 and Ross Taylor 12. It’s command of the first day was undermined slightly by the loss of Tom Latham for 37 and captain Kane Willaimson, in a dry patch, for 1.

After losing the toss and being asked to bat at Basin Reserve, West Indies openers Kraigg Brathwaite (24) and Kieran Powell (42) looked completely comfortable in their 90 minute partnership for the first wicket of 59.

But Wagner removed Brathwaite with a bouncer for his first wicket, which was a prototype for most of the rest, and that began a collapse which was only broken by the lunch break before seven wickets fell in little more than an hour in the second session.

Day Two Saturday Dec 02,2017

At close of play NZ were 447/9 with Tom Blundell 57 * and  Trent Boult 02* at the crease

NZ's Colin de Grandhomme capitalised on a strong platform laid by fifties from Ross Taylor and Henry Nicholls to raze West Indies with a stunning onslaught that all but batted them out of the Wellington Test. Along with Tom Blundell's debut fifty, de Grandhomme hammered a 71-ball maiden ton with 4x11 and 6x3, the second fastest by a New Zealand batsman in Tests, to thrust New Zealand to 447/9, a lead of 313.

Day Three Sunday Dec 03,2017

At close of play West Indies were 214/2 with Craigg Brathwaite 79* and Shai Hope 21* at the crease

Earlier NZ at 520/9 declared their 1st innings with big scores from
Ross Taylor 93(160 Balls 4x10)
Colin de  Grandhomme 105(74 Balls 4x11 and 6x3)
Tom Blundell 107(180 Balls 4x13 and 6x1) 

Day Four Monday Dec 04,2017

West Indies 134 and 319
New Zealand 520/9 Declared
Match Result - NZ won by an innings and 67 Runs
MOM - Neil Wagner(NZ) for his 7/39(14.4 Overs) and 2/102(22 Overs)
Series Result - NZ lead the 2-Match Test Series 1-0

A dramatic West Indies batting collapse gave New Zealand victory by an innings and 67 runs in the first Test on the fourth day in Wellington on Monday Dec 04,2017

The West Indies lost their last five wickets for just 33 runs in nine overs after lunch to give New Zealand victory with more than a day to spare.

The domination was set up by New Zealand winning the crucial toss and rolling the tourists for 134 on a green wicket before replying with 520 for nine declared as the pitch flattened out.

The West Indies resumed on Monday at 214 for two in their second innings, looking to knock off their 386-run deficit with minimal damage.

But the resistance ended with the loss of Kraigg Brathwaite for 91 inside the first hour as three wickets fell before lunch.

The wicket was no longer offering the bowlers any assistance but the fight had gone out of the West Indies, with the downward slide gathering pace from the first ball after the interval when Sunil Ambris was out.

Ambris, who made a golden duck when he stepped back on to his wicket in his debut first innings, made 18, including a six off Trent Boult, before being caught at first slip off Colin de Grandhomme.

Two runs and six balls later, Shane Dowrich (three) steered a Neil Wagner delivery straight to Mitchell Santner at point.

It was the first wicket of the innings for man-of-the-match Wagner and he followed with the dismissal of Jason Holder (seven) to finish with nine for the match after his seven for 39 in the first innings.

The West Indies had started the day pinning their hopes on Brathwaite but he was the first to fall after adding 12 to his overnight 79.

After facing 221 balls, the most by any batsman in the Test, the West Indies opener was too slow bringing his bat down on a straight delivery from spinner Santner which rapped him on the pads, ending a 65-run stand with Shai Hope.

Nine overs later, Hope was also back in the pavilion for 37 when New Zealand took the second new ball and he edged Boult to the safe hands of Kane Williamson at gully.

Roston Chase fell to Matt Henry for 18 as the West Indies ended the morning having lost three for 72.

Henry, who is likely to be replaced by Tim Southee in the second Test in Hamilton starting on Saturday, finished with three for 57.

West Indies’ Sunil Ambris continues unique Test debut against New Zealand

Sunil Ambris continued his unique Test debut in Wellington as he hit a six in his first scoring Test career shot three days after making an unwanted record when he got out by a hit-wicket on a duck.
Day 4 of the first Test between New Zealand and West Indies was a much happier story for the 24-year-old who became just the sixth Test player in history to hit a six in their first scoring shot. The last cricketer to achieve the feat was Sri Lanka’s Dhananjaya de Silva in 2016 against Australia.
After failing to open his account in two deliveries from Trent Boult, he sent the ball straioght over the fine leg fence
before being dismissed for 18, as West Indies went down in the first Test by an innings-and-67-run.
On the first day, Ambris’ nerves got the better of him as he got out via hit-wicket on the first delivery. The right-hand batsman successfully faced Wagner’s delivery and drove it towards the fine leg. But as he played the shot, he went a little too further behind his crease and nudged the bails with his leg, adjudging him out via hit wicket.
That made him the first cricketer to score a golden duck via a hit-wicket on his Test debut. He also became the first Test cricketer to get out by a hit-wicket on a duck in over 14 years. Former Australian skipper Steve Waugh was the last player to get out on a duck in this manner in 2003 against India.

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data shows nearly 28% jump in major crimes in Bengaluru ,Karnataka,India

Whether it is murder, robbery or cases of rioting and destroying public property, most major crimes have increased in Bengaluru, according to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data for the last year.
The report, which was released on Thursday Nov 30,2017, shows that the city has leapfrogged Mumbai to take the second position among metropolitan cities. The dramatic rise of crime by nearly 28% was met with disbelief by police officials, who claim that little had changed in methods of policing or detection that could lead to so large a number.
“An increase of around 6% is acceptable taking into account a population increase or variation in how gangs operate. But, 27% needs to be looked at. Data from our individual police stations do not show a significant rise in the cases being handled,” said a senior police official in the office of the Director-General of Police.
Officials said crimes against women and children have increased drastically owing to “better reporting”, expanded definition of rape, sexual harassment and assault, as well as tendency of the police to register multiple sections for one crime to ensure better conviction rate.
However, the rise in murders, kidnappings, and robberies, cannot be explained unless the methodologies of the NCRB are looked at, said police officials.

Three incidents
Another senior police official suggested that drastic rise could be owing to three dramatic incidents that took place in 2016 — farmers’ protest in March when thousands marched towards the Chief Minister’s office; garment workers’ protest in April that led to lathicharge and rioting; and, the September Cauvery riots in the city.
“In the Cauvery riots, 1,500 cases were filed. These three incidents could have led to increase of around 3,000 to 4,000 cases under various heads of NCRB, including damaging public property, arson, unlawful assembly, among others,” said the official.
This could have some credence, considering that rioting increased by 40%, arson by 38%, shows the report.

Conviction rates
However, there is hope, as better evidence collection over the years seems to be paying off. Conviction rate in 2016 has been better for the State and city when compared to last year.
Across the State, the conviction rate is 51.5% among crimes under the Indian Penal Code, a stark increase from 38.6% seen in 2015. Around 89,000 cases were disposed of by various courts in 2016. The Bengaluru police have managed a higher conviction rate of 61.6% in 2016.
Take for instance, economic offences that include cheating, forgery and others. The city police have managed to secure just 11 convictions in the 612 cases that were disposed in the last year. Under the Anti-corruption Act, aimed at bureaucrats and politicians, the State saw just 27% conviction in the 261 cases that were disposed of in courts

State second in cases under Dowry Prohibition Act
The State ranks second in the number of cases booked under the Dowry Prohibition Act, second only to Uttar Pradesh. However, the densely-populated Uttar Pradesh has a lower rate of incidence, of just 2.8 cases (crimes per 1 lakh population) than Karnataka which has 5.5 cases of violence against women.
The Dowry Prohibition Act has seen 1,698 cases being registered in the State and 727 in Bengaluru.
Incidentally, Bengaluru accounts for 83% of the total cases for metropolitan cities under the Act, something police officers attribute to filing of stringent sections to ensure stricter punishment. The city ranks fourth in dowry deaths with 57 cases being reported.
Overall, in crimes against women, the State has seen 14,131 cases

Low conviction
However, conviction rate remains abysmal. The State has a conviction rate of just 4.7% in crimes against women, with just 271 resulting in convictions, and 5,543 cases resulting in acquittal. Bengaluru is worse off in this regard, with a conviction rate of just 3.5%, that is, just 32 out of 921 ending in jail term for the accused, while 889 cases have resulted in acquittal.
The rate for the metropolis is among the lowest in the country. Even Delhi (30%), Ghaziabad (50.8%), and Kanpur (53%) have better conviction rates.
For crimes against children, the conviction rate goes up only marginally higher, at 12.5% in Karnataka and 11.5% in Bengaluru. As many 282 children (below 18 years) were arrested under IPC crimes.
Child marriage
By booking 51 cases under the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 in 2016, the State comes second after Tamil Nadu where 55 cases have been registered. Experts point out that this is the result of “robust” monitoring mechanism by the State government with the help of several non-governmental organisations

Rise in caste-based crimes
This year again, the State and Bengaluru tops the list in cases registered under the Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989.
With 1,741 cases, Karnataka has registered nearly 30% of the country’s cases, Bengaluru has reported 199 cases or nearly 45% of the total cases filed in metropolitan cities, shows NCRB data.
Police attribute this to better coordination between the community and the police (through monthly SC/ST grievance meetings in most districts) as well as proactiveness to file cases under the section.
However, conviction rates tell another story. For instance, in Bengaluru, of the 28 cases that have completed trial in 2016, in not one case could the city police secure a conviction. 335 cases remain pending. Similarly, in the State, conviction rate was just 2.8% in the 778 cases that finished their trial in the court in 2016.
The police have also deemed nearly 20% of the cases under the Act as “false”

Bengaluru tops in online frauds
Despite registering a stark decrease in the number of cases under the Information Technology Act, the software hub of Bengaluru continues to top the country.
In 2016, the city registered 762 cases, a decrease of over 26% when compared to the 1,041 cases registered last year. Bengaluru continues to form a bulk of the cases filed in the State and country. While Karnataka saw 1,091 cases in 2016 — with its capital contributing nearly 70% of all registered cases — Bengaluru also has nearly 30% of all complaints registered across the country.
In Karnataka, there are 70 cases reported under Section 67 of the IT Act for transmitting sexually explicit material

Delhi tops list for number of crimes against women, again Says data released by the National Crime Records Bureau on Thursday Nov 30,2017

Delhi continues to record the highest number of cases of crimes against women in 2016 among metropolitan cities despite a drop compared to previous years, according to the latest data released by the National Crime Records Bureau on Thursday Nov 30,2017

The city ranks number one in terms of crime rate and accounts for 33.1% of cases relating to women’s safety among metropolitan cities.

Most rape cases

Delhi accounts for the maximum number of rape cases among 19 major cities at 40% and nearly 29% of cases involving cruelty by husband and his relatives or dowry deaths.

Crimes against women in Delhi have decreased from 17,222 in 2015 to 15,310 in 2016, a drop of 11.1%. In 2016, the Delhi accounted for 2,155 cases of rape, 669 cases of stalking and 41 cases of voyeurism, followed by Mumbai where 359 cases of stalking and 28 cases of voyeurism were reported. The city records highest number of cases of stalking in all metropolitan cities.

As many as 783 cases were reported under insult to modesty of woman.

As per NCRB data, a total of 3,746 cases of assault on women with intent to outrage her modesty were reported.

 This includes 741 cases of sexual harassment.

Pending cases

A total of 18,127 cases, including those from previous years, are pending for investigation. However the Delhi police have submitted charge sheets in 7,963 cases. The city holds the second position with 61.4% after Chennai in terms of disposal of pending cases.
In the 2,301 cases in which trials were completed, 679 persons were convicted and 1,622 persons were acquitted or discharged. The conviction rate was 29.5%. The city courts hold 21,666 cases, including previous cases, pending for trial.
A total of 1,620 cases under Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act(POCSO) were reported during the year 2016.
“We have introduced e-FIR and always convert complaints into FIR for proper action.

Fall in cases

The last three years’ figures reflects that there is a continuous downfall in cases of crime against women in the city. And women’s safety is a top priority of the Delhi police,” said Deependra Pathak, spokesperson, Delhi police.
Mr. Pathak added that the Delhi police have also introduced community policing to make the city safe for women.

Indians have gained 10 years of life expectancy since 1990, says study

The Indian population has gained nearly a decade of life expectancy since 1990, but with vast inequalities between states, ranging from 66.8 years in Uttar Pradesh to 78.7 years in Kerala for women, according to study published today in The Lancet Journal.

The study is the first comprehensive analysis of the health of India’s 1.34 billion citizens – encompassing almost a fifth of the world’s population.

It estimates the key drivers of ill health, disability, and premature death in all 29 states, many of which have populations the size of large countries, and include people from over 2,000 different ethnic groups.

The researchers divided India’s states into four groups according to their level of development or epidemiological transition, using the ratio of illness and premature death caused by communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (CMNNDs) versus non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries as an indicator.

“Individual states in India are in different phases of epidemiological transition, and this has resulted in wide inequalities in the magnitude and progress against various diseases and their causes,” said Lalit Dandona, from the Public Health Foundation of India in Gurugram.

 “Rather than taking a more generic approach, these new estimates will be crucial to steering health policy to take account of specific health problems and risks in each state, and ultimately achieving the government’s vision of assuring health for all,” said Dandona, who led the study.

The Indian population has gained nearly a decade of life expectancy since 1990, rising to 66.9 years in men and 70.3 years in women.

However, there are wide inequalities between states, with life expectancy for women ranging from 66.8 years in Uttar Pradesh to 78.7 years in Kerala.

 Since 1990, India has made substantial gains in health, with the overall health loss from all diseases and conditions about one-third less per person in 2016 than in 1990.

However, progress has been mixed, with greater improvements in states at the most advanced phases of development (eg, Kerala and Goa), compared to those in the earlier stages (eg, Assam, Uttar Pradesh and several other poorer north Indian states).

Child health remains a particular concern, with high levels of neonatal and under-5 disease relative to other age groups.

The under-5 mortality rate has reduced substantially since 1990 in all states, but rates in Assam and Uttar Pradesh are four times higher than in Kerala, indicating major health inequalities.

The burden from CMNNDs has decreased.

Yet, diseases that primarily cause illness and death in children and mothers continue to dominate in the country.

 Lower respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases were the 3rd and 4th leading causes of health loss in 2016, accounting for about 9 per cent of all premature death and ill health.

 Moreover, there are wide differences between states in terms of overall progress.

 Despite signs of progress, several CMNNDs including diarrhoeal diseases, iron-deficiency anaemia, and tuberculosis still cause a disproportionate amount of ill health, and claim more lives, than is expected for India’s stage of development, particularly in states in the early stages of epidemiological transition.

As a result of urbanisation and ageing, the burden of NCDs is large and rapidly rising in all states.

 The fastest-growing causes of ill-health over the last 26 years were diabetes (increased by 174 per cent) and ischaemic heart disease (up 104 per cent)

 Rapid urbanisation is responsible for rising deaths and health loss from road injuries in most states since 1990, highlighting the lack of a comprehensive national policy for injury prevention, researchers said

Vodafone India In Partnership With Micromax Offers a slew of entry-level smartphones with an effective price starting at Rs 1,549

India’s second-largest telecom operator, Vodafone India, on Thursday Nov 30,2017 said it has extended its partnership with domestic handset maker Micromax by offering a slew of entry-level smartphones with an effective price starting at Rs 1,549

 Under the tie-up, existing and new Vodafone customers can purchase any of the new Micromax smartphones – Bharat 2 Plus, Bharat 3, Bharat 4 and Canvas-1 – and enjoy the cash back offers.

Bharat 2 Plus smartphone’s market price is Rs 3,749, while Bharat 3, Bharat 4 and Canvas-1 are priced at Rs 4,499, Rs 4,999 and Rs 5,999, respectively.

To avail of this special offer, customers have to do a recharge of at least Rs 150 per month for 36 months.

At the end of first 18 months, they will receive a cash back of Rs 900 and an additional rS 1,300 after another 18 months, thereby availing a total cash back of Rs 2,200.

The cash back will be credited to their Vodafone M-Pesa wallets.

Commenting on the partnership, Vodafone India associate director (consumer business) Avneesh Khosla said, “This is an initiative to democratise access to Vodafone SuperNet 4G. Recently, through our partnership with Micromax, we launched the most affordable smartphone in the country at a very attractive price of Rs 999. We are now giving more options to our customers to choose from by bringing four more entry-level Micromax 4G smartphones within the special cash back offer.”

 Last month, Vodafone partnered with Micromax to launch the Bharat-2 Ultra smartphone at an effective price of `999.

There is a Rs 1,900 cash back offer on this handset as its market price is Rs 2,899.

6.0-magnitude earthquake hits off Papua New Guinea Friday Dec 01,2017

A 6.0-magnitude earthquake struck just off the coast of Papua New Guinea Friday Dec 01,2017, US seismologists said, but there were no immediate reports of damage and no tsunami warning was issued.

The quake hit at a depth of 52 km about 59.1 km from the nearest town of Finschhafen in Morobe province, the United States Geological Survey said.

The quake struck within three kilometres of the shoreline, with the potential for damage up to 45 kilometres away, Geoscience Australia said.

“There is potential for some damage to the local towns,” Geoscience seismologist Eddie Leask told

“Magnitude 6.0 is reasonable in its shaking… so you do have high-energy shaking in the local areas that can cause some issues.”

Earthquakes are common in PNG, which sits on the so- called Pacific Ring of Fire, a hotspot for seismic activity due to friction between tectonic plates.

Japan’s Emperor Akihito to abdicate on April 30, 2019

Emperor Akihito, who has spent much of his nearly three decades on Japan’s throne seeking to soothe the wounds of World War Two, will step down on April 30, 2019 – the first abdication by a Japanese monarch in about two centuries.

A 10-member Imperial Household Council chaired by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and including lawmakers, royals and supreme court justices agreed on the timing in a meeting on Friday Dec 01,2017

The government was required by law to hear the council’s views before formally deciding the date, most likely next week.

The octogenarian Akihito will be succeeded by his heir, 57-year-old Crown Prince Naruhito.

“This is the first abdication by an emperor in 200 years and the first under the (post-war) constitution,” Abe told after announcing the panel’s recommendation. “I feel deep emotion that today, the opinion of the Imperial Household Council was smoothly decided and a big step was taken toward the imperial succession.”

Once considered divine, Japan’s emperor is defined in the post-war constitution as a “symbol of the state and of the unity of the people”, but has no political power. Akihito, along with Empress Michiko, has spent much of his time on the throne trying to address the legacy of World War Two, which was fought in his father Hirohito’s name, and consoling victims of disasters or other woes. He is widely respected by many average Japanese.

“Both the emperor and empress thought tirelessly about the people,” said 72-year-old care-giver Taeko Ito.

“Now he is elderly and I wish from my heart that he can have a rest.”

 Akihito and Michiko, the first commoner to wed a Japanese monarch, have worked to reconcile relations across Asia, which suffered from Japan’s aggression before and during World War Two, with numerous visits abroad

In 1992, he became the first Japanese monarch in living memory to visit China, where bitter memories of the war run deep.

During that visit the emperor said he “deeply deplored” an “unfortunate period in which my country inflicted great suffering on the people of China”.

 Akihito has also consistently urged the Japanese people never to forget the horrors of war, remarks that have garnered increased attention since Abe took office in 2012 and sought to adopt a less apologetic tone over Japan’s past military aggression.

“He redefined the job. He wanted to modernise the monarchy and take care of the unfinished business … and bring the imperial household closer to the people,” said Jeffrey Kingston, director of Asian studies at Temple University Japan. “He’s been remarkably successful on all fronts. He is deeply admired and respected. His moral authority is unquestioned.”

Once Akihito steps down a new “imperial era” will begin, replacing the current “Heisei” or “achieving peace” period which began on Jan. 8, 1989, the day he took the throne.

Japan uses the Western-style Gregorian calendar but has also preserved the ancient custom in which the reign of a new emperor ushers in a new era.

The last time a Japanese emperor abdicated was in 1817. 

A law adopted in June allows Akihito to step down, but left details such as timing to be worked out later.

The law did not address the problem of the future of the ageing, shrinking imperial family and the related issue of whether women should be allowed to ascend the throne.

Eleven-year-old Prince Hisahito, the son of Akihito’s younger son Prince Akishino, is the emperor’s only grandson and will be second in line to the throne after his father following the abdication

Naruhito’s daughter, Princess Aiko, who turned 16 on Friday Dec 01,2017, cannot inherit the males-only throne.

Look, Ma, no water! IIM-Calcutta alumnus comes up with waterless bathing products

Personal hygiene is essential for human beings, but there are many who reside in areas with water scarcity, in extreme weather conditions, or are unable to bathe because of old age. 

Thanks to an IIM alumnus, there may be a way out for such people. 

It was while working closely with soldiers on a project that the idea of a waterless body bath and shampoo popped up in Puneet Gupta’s mind, and that’s how Clensta was launched.

Clensta, formed by joining two words — cleaning and instant — is a start-up that helps people bathe without water. 

Currently, it caters to the personal hygiene needs of soldiers deployed in areas where there is a lack of water or the weather is extreme, such as Siachen, Jammu and Kashmir and the Andaman and Nicobar islands. 

How it works
The body wash is very easy to use. A user just has to take 25 ml and massage it gently all over the body. And then wipe dry with a towel. 

“Not only does it take away dirt, dust and odour, it also maintains the Ph of the skin and keeps it moisturised,” says Gupta. “My previous project gave me an opportunity to work with soldiers in the para-military forces. I saw soldiers not being able to move from their positions for two-four days. 

It was then that I realised that the personal hygiene was a major concern for them,” Gupta, an IIM-Calcutta alumnus, who is also the founder and CEO of Clensta, told 

Among those who helped Gupta in this endeavour is Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, which assisted the project, and is a research partner and shareholder with Clensta.

“When the team came up to us, they had a rough idea of what they wanted. We assisted them in choosing stable and safe ingredients for the products,” said Anurag S Rathore, Professor, IIT-Delhi, and Scientific Advisor to Clensta. Rathore is also working on getting the products to comply with global standards. 

Myriad applications
Clensta products, which were launched in August 2017, can also be used by hospital staff for patients, home healthcare, frequent travellers, and adventure enthusiasts.

“We keep taking our clients on treks. I think the product is of maximum utility for trekkers as they cannot bathe for 3-4 days,” says Alankar Chandra, CEO of Wild Voyager, a wildlife tourism company.

Says Dr Praveen Tripathi, a Delhi-based psychiatrist: “I have patients suffering from dementia and this helps in maintaining their personal hygiene, which earlier was a daunting task for family.” 

Clensta plans to sell around one lakh bottles each of waterless shampoo and waterless body bath by this fiscal year-end. Currently, the products are available only in the B2B market at ₹499 and ₹549 per 100 ml, respectively. 

Though priced on the higher side, Gupta claims that 100 ml of the body wash will help save 350 litres, adding that an average human being spends 70 litres on a bath with conventional soap. 

“We will be entering the business-to-customer market in a year.”

2017 Uttar Pradesh Civic Elections - Counting Of Votes & Declaration Of Results Today Friday Dec 01,2017

The results of the three-phase municipal elections or 652 urban local body polls in Uttar Pradesh will be declared on Friday Dec 01,2017 from 8 am onwards. 
This election is a testing ground for Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath’s new government as winning will prove his ground in the state and give a boost to the ruling party before the upcoming Gujarat assembly polls. 
The Chief Minister has himself campaigned across 16 local bodies, starting from Ayodhya, to ensure BJP’s victory in the three-phase civic body polls.

The last round of polling on Wednesday Nov 29,2017 saw the highest turnout as more than 58.72 per cent votes were polled
According to the State Election Commission officials, the voting percentage this time in these 26 districts, was seven per cent more than the urban body polls in 2012.

The highest balloting was recorded in Kanpur rural where 73.46 per cent votes were cast. Second highest polling was witnessed in Maharajganj where 72.92 per cent votes were cast

Barring few incidents of violence, protests and baton charges by police, the polling passed off peacefully and repolling was not ordered at any place.

In the first round of polling on November 22, 52.59 per cent polling was recorded while the second phase on November 26, saw a meagre 49.30 per cent turnout.

On Wednesday, Saharanpur saw 67.28 per cent polling, Baghpat 67.14, Bulandshahr 62.68, Moradabad 48.47, Sambhal 57.18, Bareilly 53.17, Firozabad 55.74 and in the Samajwadi Party (SP) strongholds of Etah, Kannauj and Auraiyya, the turnout was 57.56, 67.38 and 63.4 per cent respectively.

Voting took place for 233 urban bodies spread across 26 districts of the state. 
5 Municipal Corporations also went up for vote to elect their new mayors.
The 5 Municipal Corporations where polling is taking place include Moradabad, Bareilly, Saharanpur, Jhansi and Firozabad. 
There are 74 candidates for mayoral post in these five places, and 3,175 candidates for 350 corporation seats. Maximum number of candidates for a mayoral seat were 22 in Bareilly.

In 2012, the BJP had won 10 of 12 municipal corporations, one each were won by Independents backed by the SP and BSP. There are four new municipalities this time, Ayodhya, Saharanpur, Firozabad and Mathura

 BJP Set For Big Win

The BJP has won 14 of the 16 mayoral seats in the Uttar Pradesh municipal elections.

 BJP's mayor candidates have won in Varanasi, Gorakhpur, Ghaziabad, Bareilly, Agra, Firozabad, Ayodhya, Mathura, Lucknow, Kanpur, Saharanpur Jhansi and Bareilly, and Moradabad.

 The BSP has won in Aligarh and Meerut. .

The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) which was decimated in the 2014 Lok Sabha polls and the 2017 state assembly elections, however, made a comeback, leading in the remaining three municipal corporations.

It is for the first time that the BSP has contested the urban body polls on the party symbol. Earlier it used to extend support to independent candidates.

The BJP’s mayoral candidate in the crucial seat of Ayodhya —— the hotbed of the BJP’s Hindutva brand of politics —— has won.

Vote counting is also underway for the 5,434 Nagar Panchayat member seats and 5,261 corporator seats but in these independents have taken a major lead.

Of the 5,434 Nagar Panchayat seats, independents have won 522 seats so far and the BJP is leading in 132 seats, the Samajwadi Party (SP) 69, BSP 53 and Congress 13.

In the corporator polls, of the 5,261 seats where counting is underway, independents are leading in 212 seats, BJP (28), BSP (24) and SP (12). There are 79,113 candidates in the fray for the corporator seats. Counting is on at 334 places.

The Congress’s bad run in the state continues and its candidates are faring poorly in most places. Even in party pocket borough Amethi, the party’s candidates are trailing way behind in the Nagar Panchayat chairman posts.

World AIDS Day - December 01

HIV infections are on the decline-Infographic-TOI

5 Facts About the Deadly Disease

17 seconds

Roughly 1.8 million people worldwide contracted the virus that causes AIDS in 2016. That figure breaks down to about one HIV infection every 17 seconds, or almost 5,000 per day.

Two-thirds of new cases in Africa

Since 2010 the rate of infection among adults has decreased slowly from 1.9 million to 1.7 million per year in 2016. Two-thirds of new cases occur in Africa.

Children's cases cut almost by half

New infections among children have fallen sharply: since 2010 they have been cut almost by half from 300,000 to 160,000 in 2016.

A key factor has been detection among pregnant women in Africa, followed by treatment with anti-retroviral drugs that protect their baby.

Nearing 40 million with HIV

Close to 40 million people live with the virus today. UNAIDS put their number last year at 36.7 million.

The number continues to increase, however, owing to continued transmission of the disease and increased access to anti-retroviral drugs in developing countries which has raised the survival rate of HIV-positive people.

Deaths halved

AIDS-related deaths have declined by almost 50 percent since a peak of 1.9 million in 2005, to 1.0 million in 2016.

Some 20.9 million people now have access to treatment which is effective when followed regularly.

Some 76.1 million have been infected since the AIDS epidemic erupted in 1981 according to UNAIDS, with 35 million dying over that period.

The first of December is observed as World AIDS Day to create awareness about the disease HIV/AIDS.

 It is one of the eight global public health campaigns undertaken by the World Health Organization (WHO).

The theme for this year's event is the "Right to Health" which includes a host of programmes to raise awareness about the symptoms and diagnosis of the disease which still continues be a sweeping pandemic in many parts of the world.

This iteration of the World AIDS day intends to inform people of the role of governments and institutions in curtailing the spread of the disease, and the financial burden of treating it.

What is HIV and how is it different from AIDS?

HIV is the acronym for human immunodeficiency virus, and responsible for the slow degeneration of the immune system.

It makes the victim more prone to infections, which ultimately can be fatal.

AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

 It is the terminal stage of the HIV infection

How many people are living with HIV?

A UNAIDS report published in June 2017 states that 21 million people who are infected with HIV have been diagnosed and are undergoing treatment. Data compiled by the World Bank reveals that nations in the African cape have the highest prevalence of HIV as a percentage of the population. South Africa and Botswana have 18.9% and 21.9% of their respective populations infected with HIV. The corresponding value for India is 0.3%.

What are the main causes for the transmission of HIV?

Sexual contact through vaginal and anal penetration is the primary source of transmission of the viral infection. The use of contaminated syringes and other equipment for injections also leads to transmission of the virus into the blood stream.

2017-18 The Ashes - Australia Vs England Second Day-Night Test @ Adelaide Dec 02 -06,2017

5-Match Test Series Results

First Test @ Brisbane Nov 23-27,2017
 England  302 and 195
Australia 328 and 173/0(Target 170 Runs)
MOM  - Steve Smith(Australia)
Series Result - Australia lead the 5-Match Test Series 1-0

Second Day-Night Test @ Adelaide Preview

Australia will field the same team in the second Ashes Test against England, captain Steve Smith said on Friday Dec 01,2017, with uncapped local seamer Chadd Sayers and quick Jackson Bird again missing out.

Australia took a 1-0 lead in the five-match series with a 10-wicket victory at the Gabba where their dominance in the second innings gave the pace trio of Mitchell Starc, Josh Hazlewood and Pat Cummins sufficient time to rest.

Australia’s selectors named a 13-man squad for the first two tests, including the surprise selections of opener Cameron Bancroft, batsman Shaun Marsh and wicketkeeper Tim Paine.

Day One Saturday Dec 02,2017

England won the toss and chose to field



  • Cameron Bancroft
  • David Warner
  • Usman Khawaja
  • Steven Smith(c)
  • Peter Handscomb
  • Shaun Marsh
  • Tim Paine(wk)
  • Mitchell Starc
  • Pat Cummins
  • Josh Hazlewood
  • Nathan Lyon


  • Alastair Cook
  • Mark Stoneman
  • James Vince
  • Joe Root(c)
  • Dawid Malan
  • Moeen Ali
  • Jonny Bairstow(wk)
  • Chris Woakes
  • Craig Overton
  • Stuart Broad
  • James Anderson
 At close of play Australia were 209/4 with Peter Handscomb 36* and Shaun Marsh 20*at the crease

Day Two Sunday Dec 03,2017

At Close of play England at 29/1  with Alastair Cook 11* and James Vince 0* at the crease

England trail by 413 runs with 9 wickets remaining in the 1st innings

Earlier Australia at 442/8 Declared their 1st Innings with Shaun Marsh scoring 126(231 Balls 4x15 and 6x1)  - 5th Test Ton
This is only his second century at home in 19 innings.
 Previously he scored 188 against West Indies at Hobart. 
Shaun Marsh became the fourth centurion for Australia in day-night Tests after Usman Khawaja, Steven Smith and Peter Handscomb

Day Three Monday Dec 04,2017

At close of play Australia were 53/4

Earlier England were all out for 227 

 Day Four Tuesday Dec 05,2017

Australia bundled out for 138 in their 2nd innings with England to score 354 Runs to win the Test



2017 Sri Lanka Tour Of India - India Vs Sri Lanka Third Test @ New Delhi Dec 02-06,2017

3-Match Test Series Results

First Test @ Kolkata Nov 16-20,2017
India 172 and 352/8 Declared
Sri Lanka 294 and 75/7
Match Result - Match Drawn
MOM - Bhuvneshwar Kumar(India)for his 4/88(27 Overs )and  4/08(11 Overs)

Second Test @ Nagpur Nov 24-27,2017
Sri Lanka 205 and 166
India 610/6 Declared
Match Result - India won by An Innings and 239 Runs
MOM - Virat Kohli(India) for his 213(267 Balls 4x17 and 6x2)
Series Result - India lead the 3-Match Test Series 1-0


3-rd Test @ New Delhi Match Preview

Feroz Shah Kotla Venue Statistics
No of Test Matches Played 33
India has won                      13
India has drawn                   14
India has lost                       06

Sri Lanka has played @ Kotla only once earlier in Dec 2005  and India has defeated Sri Lanka by 188 Runs.MOM - Anil Kumble(India) for his6/72 and 4/85

Sri Lanka appear to have neither the game-plan nor the resources to halt India's seemingly inexorable march towards a record-equalling ninth consecutive series victory when the neighbours clash in the third and final test on Saturday.

Sri Lanka's long-suffering fans saw a sliver of hope when Dinesh Chandimal and his men blanked Pakistan 2-0 in the United Arab Emirates in October before embarking on their bid to win a maiden test on Indian soil.

They managed to bowl out Virat Kohli's men for 172 in the first test in Kolkata but after letting a dominant position slip on the final day, needed poor light to intervene to escape with a draw in that weather-hit contest at the Eden Gardens.

At a dry Nagpur, a marauding India cruelly exposed Sri Lanka's limitations and went on to register their joint biggest victory with more than a day to spare.

India's ruthless batsmen — four of them helped themselves to centuries — made hay while the sun shone as they toyed with a toothless Sri Lankan attack in a complete mismatch.

The hosts declared their first innings 'batathon' at 610 for six and did not need a second go in the middle after the home bowlers duly ran through Sri Lanka twice in the innings and 239 runs triumph.

"Before we came here, we had a gameplan," Chandimal said after Sri Lanka's worst defeat in test cricket in which they scored less than 19 runs per wicket.

"We said to the guys, 'if you get a start, you have to bat long'. But they scored only 50-60 runs and got out. It's unfortunate but I'm sure they will learn."

India, who subjected Sri Lanka to a 9-0 home whitewash across all formats earlier this year, are unlikely to take their foot off the accelerator in the final home test before they leave for South Africa.

As was the case in Kolkata and Nagpur, the track at Delhi's Ferozeshah Kotla is likely to sport a green tinge as captain Kohli wants the series to double up as preparations for a tougher assignment away to the Proteas.

"We want to prepare for South Africa. That's why we asked for pitches with help for the fast bowlers," Kohli said after the Nagpur romp.

"There's not enough time in between to prepare, so we have to use the time we have now for a big tour coming up."

Kohli has killed two birds with one stone with his choice of surface, which has also diluted Sri Lanka's most potent spin threat Rangana Herath, who will miss the Delhi test with a back injury.

Kohli's counterpart Chandimal, however, will be more alarmed by the lack of application among his batsmen, as was evident on day four of the Nagpur test when seven of them got out in the morning session, most of them through poor shot selections.

India are heavy favourites to win again but only need a draw to tie England and Australia for the record for most consecutive test series wins and Chandimal's men would have to conjure up something extraordinary to deny the hosts.

Day One Saturday Dec 02,2017

India won the toss and chose to bat first



 Shikhar Dhawan, Murali Vijay, Cheteshwar Pujara, Virat Kohli(c), Ajinkya Rahane, Rohit Sharma, Ravichandran Ashwin, Wriddhiman Saha(w), Ravindra Jadeja, Mohammed Shami and Ishant Sharma.

Sri Lanka

Sadeera Samarawickrama, Dimuth Karunaratne, Dhananjaya de Silva, Angelo Mathews, Dinesh Chandimal(c), Niroshan Dickwella (w), Roshen Silva, Dilruwan Perera, Suranga Lakmal, Lakshan Sandakan and Lahiru Gamage

India, who are leading the series 1-0, have made two changes to their playing XI, bringing in Shikhar Dhawan and Mohammed Shami in place of K.L. Rahul and Umesh Yadav.

Sri Lanka have made three changes to their side. They have dropped Rangana Herath, Lahiru Thirimanne and Dasun Shanaka and replaced them with Lakshan Sandakan, Dhananjaya de Silva and Roshen Silva, who will make his Test debut

At lunch, India were 116 /2  with Murali Vijay 51* and Virat Kohli 17* at the crease
Earlier Shikhar Dhawan and Cheteshwar Pujara were out scoring 23 Runs each

India reach 371/4 at the end of Day 1 of the third Test against Sri Lanka in Delhi with Virat Kohli 156* and Rohit Sharma 06* at the crease

Virat Kohli and Murali Vijay put on 283 runs for the third wicket

Indian batting continued to make merry against the hapless Sri Lankan attack as tons from Murali Vijay (155) and skipper Virat Kohli (156*) helped India reach 371/4 at the end of Day 1 of the third Test against Sri Lanka in Delhi with Virat Kohli 156* and Rohit Sharma 06* at the crease

It could have been a whole lot worse for Sri Lanka, but two late wickets for Lakshan Sandakan helped the visitors pull back the hosts towards the fag end of the day.

Murali Vijay who scored a century on comeback in Nagpur, repeated the same feat in New Delhi and completed his 11th Test century without any trouble whilst in the company of the run-machine and his captain Virat Kohli.

Virat Kohli scores 20th Test century, racks up staggering numbers in 2017

  Incidentally, this is also Kohli’s first ever Test hundred at the Feroz Shah Kotla. His century off 110 balls and the half-century off 52 balls were his individual fastest landmarks in this format.

Virat Kohli, first captain to score hat-trick of centuries

Indian Skipper Virat Kohli on Saturday Dec 02,2017 became the first international captain to hit three successive hundreds in a three-Test series.

Kohli also completed his individual 5000 runs in the longest version of the game.

While many captains have had three or four Test tons in a five-match series, it is rarity that a batsman has scored three consecutive tons in a three-match series.

Kohli now has 11 international hundreds in a season — one less than Sachin Tendulkar’s 12.
The Indian captain scored 104 not out in Kolkata followed by 213 in Nagpur before completing his hat-trick with his 20th Test hundred in his 63rd game

Incidentally, this is also Kohli’s first ever Test hundred at the Feroz Shah Kotla.

His century off 110 balls and the half-century off 52 balls were his individual fastest landmarks in this format.

The 5000 runs came in 105th innings, which is the fourth fastest among the Indian batsmen after Sunil Gavaskar (95 innings), Virender Sehwag (98 innings) and Sachin Tendulkar (103 innings).

Day Two Sunday Dec 03,2017

At Lunch India were 500/5 with Virat Kohli 225* at the Crease

Rohit Sharma fell for 65 (102 Balls 4x7 and 6x2) second-last ball before lunch

At close of play Sri Lanka were 131/3 with Angelo Mathews 57- amd Diensh Chandimal 25* at the crease

Earlier India declared their ist innings at 536/7 with Captain Virat Kohli scoring 243(287 Balls 4x25) his 6th Double Ton and 20th Century in Test Matches 

Virat Kohli's Six Double Tons

1) 200 Vs West Indies @ Antigua on July 21,2016

2)211 Vs New Zealand @ Indore on Oct 08,2016

3)235 Vs England @ Mumbai on Dec 08,2016

4)204 Vs Bangladesh @ Hyderabad on Feb 09,2017

5)203 Vs Sri Lanka @Nagpur on Nov 24,2017

6)243 Vs Sri Lanka @ Delhi on Dec 03,2017


Day Three Monday Dec 04,2017

At close of play Sri Lanka were 356/9 with Dinesh Chandimal 147* and Lakshan Sandakan 0* at the crease , still trailing India by 180 runs.

Angelo Mathews scored 111(268 Balls 4x14 and 6x2)

Angelo Mathews needed a life on 98 — dropped by Rohit Sharma in second slip  to celebrate a Test century that came after 37 innings and two years

Angelo Mathews and Dinesh added 181 Runs for the 4th wicket 

Dinesh Chandimal became the fastest Sri Lankan to reach 10 Test tons — 80 innings. He surpassed Thilan Samaraweera who had scored the same in 82 innings back in 2009.

Sri Lanka finally reminded everyone of the batting quality they possess, as centuries from Dinesh Chandimal and, at long last, Angelo Mathews helped them avoid the follow-on at the Feroz Shah Kotla. 

Day Four Tuesday Dec 05,2017

At close of play Sri Lanka were 31/3 with Dhananjaya de Silva 13* and Angelo Mathews 0* at the crease and Sri Lanka require another 379 runs with 7 wickets remaining to win the test match

Mohammed Shami and Ravindra Jadeja ripped through Sri Lanka's top order after India set them 410 to win the Delhi Test or survive the best part of four sessions to save it. Bad light brought the fourth day to an end with a theoretical 13 overs remaining, with Sri Lanka struggling at

Earlier India declared their 2nd innings at 246/5 with vital contributions from
Shikhar Dhawan               67(91 Balls 4x5 and 6x1)
Cheteshwar Pujara            49(66 Balls 4x5)
Virat Kohli                         50(58 Balls 4x3)
Rohit Sharma                     50(49 Balls 4x5) 

South Africa's Marco Marais slammed the fastest triple century in first-class cricket

Marco Marais(24) slammed the fastest triple century in first-class cricket to become the second South African in just over a week to claim a world record.

Marco Marais went on a hitting spree to smash 300 not out off 191 balls for Border against Eastern Province in East London in South Africa's three-day provincial competition, the country's second tier of first-class cricket.

The previous fastest recorded triple century in terms of balls faced was off 221 deliveries by Charlie Macartney for the touring Australians against Nottinghamshire in 1921.

Denis Compton made 300 for MCC against North-Eastern Transvaal in 181 minutes in 1948/49 but the number of balls faced was not recorded. The England batsman went in at 61 for two and the total innings lasted for 71 eight-ball overs.

The previously unheralded Marais hit 35 fours and 13 sixes after arriving to bat with his side in trouble at 82 for four.

He and Bradley Williams (113 not out) added an unbeaten 428 runs before Border declared. Rain interfered with the match, which ended in a draw.

Like Shane Dadswell, who set a 'minor' cricket world record by smashing 490 not out in a limited overs club match in Potchefstroom recently, Marais is hoping his feat will provide a step up to franchise cricket, the top tier of South African domestic cricket.

"I didn't go overseas to play club cricket this year," he said. "I sacrificed and I worked the whole off-season on specific things and areas I thought I could improve on."

India's Rs 1 Currency Note And Its 100 Year History Nov 30,1917 - Nov 30,2017

Today Thursday Nov 30,2017, the humble one-rupee note turns 100 years in age.

The first Re1 note printed in England was issued on November 30, 1917 in India, with an image of King George V, the then British monarch, imprinted on the left corner.

Although currency notes were being issued by the government of India since 1861, the Re1 note was launched in 1917 because the silver used for the Re1 coin was melted for making weaponry components during World War I.

When it was issued in 1917, Re1 was equal to 10.7 gms of silver. Taking into consideration the present value of silver — Rs390 for 10 grams — numismatists estimate that over its 100-year life, the value of Re1 has depreciated around 400 times.

Although Re1 currency notes are still around, coins are more common. But there is a big demand for notes, especially for festivals and other auspicious occasions where Re1 is added while gifting money.

The genesis of Re 1 lies in the World War I where the inability to mint coins forced the then colonial authorities to shift to printing Re 1 notes in 1917

It was first introduced in 1917 with the photo of King George V on it but was discontinued due to "cost-benefit considerations". It got reintroduced in 1940, only to be discontinued in 1994 again.

The little note got back again in 2015

Till 1970, Indian One Rupee note was also used as a currency in Persian and Gulf countries such as Dubai, Bahrain, Muscat, Oman etc

Post-Independence in India (August 15, 1947), the first One Rupee currency was issued in 1948. The note was different in size and colour with “One Rupee” written in eight Indian languages. However, Malayalam language was excluded, which was incorporated after the formation of Kerala state in 1956, as per the RBI website

2018 FIFA World Cup - FIFA World Cup 2018 draw will take place on Friday, Dec 01,2017

When is FIFA World Cup 2018 draw?
FIFA World Cup 2018 draw will take place on Friday, Dec 01,2017 , at 8:30 PM IST.

Where is FIFA World Cup 2018 draw being held?
FIFA World Cup 2018 draw Ceremony will take place at the State Kremlin Palace, in Moscow, the capital city of Russia.

Which teams have qualified for FIFA World Cup 2018?
The teams which are qualified for the FIFA World Cup 2018 are divided into four pots on the basis of their FIFA rankings.
Here are the Pots.

Same Sex Marriage - Only 25 countries legalised same-sex marriage

Same-sex marriage remains criminalised in 72 countries.

 Out of the 25 countries that have legalised same-sex marriage, 15 countries have done it in the last five years.

The latest to join the league is Australia where the upper house Senate approved the bill for same-sex marriage and is awaiting the assent of the lower house.

Three countries, Malta, Germany and Finland, legalised same-sex marriage in 2017 with hopes being pinned on Australia to become the third country to do so this year.

Here is the list of 25 countries where gay marriage is legal

Malta: The Maltese parliament voted unanimously in favour of same-sex marriage, 66-1, in July 2017. Malta is a predominantly Roman Catholic country and the bill to legalise gay marriage was fiercely opposed by the Catholic church. Instead of “husband” and “wife”, Malta Parliament amended their Marriage Act and replaced it with “spouse”.
Germany: Despite standing against legalising gay marriage, Chancellor Angela Merkel gave freedom to the members of the Parliament to vote from their conscience, days before the voting. By 393-226 votes, the Parliament voted in favour of the bill and became the 15th nation to legalise same-sex marriage.
Finland: Before the approval of the Parliament, a public petition was circulated and signed by 167,000 people in favour of same-sex marriage. The Parliament approved the bill in 2014 and in 2015, the President signed it into a law. Same-sex marriage became legal in March 2017

Colombia: In April, the country’s constitutional court ruled in favour of legal same-sex marriage by 6-3 votes.

Ireland: More than half of the members of Parliament voted in favour of same-sex marriage and supported the ‘yes’ campaign.
United States: America follows a complex federal and state governmental legal system. A few states in the country had already legalised same-sex unions by 2015 when the US Supreme Court ruled to include same-sex marriages in the Constitution.
Greenland is an autonomous constituent body of Denmark and so the laws of Denmark are not applicable to the territory. While Denmark adopted the same-sex marriage law in 2012, Greenland legalised the same after three years

Scotland: The Scottish Parliament voted in majority for legalisation of same-sex marriage and added a clause giving freedom to churches who do not wish to conduct gay marriages.
Luxembourg: Prime Minister Xavier Bettel, a gay himself, extended full support to the same-sex marriage bill.
England and Wales: Queen Elizabeth II approved the passage of the same-sex marriage bill with a clause — such would not take place within the Church of England.
Brazil: Brazil’s National Council of Justice ruled that marriage licenses should be provided to same-sex couples. Before 2013, half of Brazil had already legalised gay marriage.
France: French President Francois Hollande passed the law along with their right to adopt. The opposition has been in continuous retaliation of the right to adopt children by the gays and the lesbians.
New Zealand: In 2005, New Zealand allowed civil unions and in 2013 same-sex marriage was legalised along with the right to adopt children. Former Prime Minister John Key provided full support to the bill.
Uruguay: Former President José Mujica signed the bill into law making Uruguay the second Latin American country to legalise same-sex marriage

Denmark: Among all the countries, Denmark was the first to acknowledge same-sex couples and allowed them to live as domestic partners in 1989. The bill became a law when Queen Margrethe II gave her royal assent to the bill

Argentina: The first Latin American country to legalise gay marriage was Argentina and former President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchne signed the bill into law. Gay couples in Argentina have same rights as heterosexual couples.
Portugal: The law in favour of same-sex marriage was passed through the Constitutional court and not the government. Former president Anibal Cavaco Silva opposed the ruling and requested a review. But in 2010 the court declared the law to be valid and upheld its decision.
Iceland: When in 2010 Iceland passed the law in favour of gay marriage, then prime minister, Johanna Sigurdardottir, wed her longtime partner, Jonina Leosdottir, becoming one of the first gay couple to marry under the statute

Sweden: Sweden legalised gay marriage and the church governing body allowed its clergy to officiate at same-sex marriage ceremonies

Norway: The 2008 law replaced the 1993 law which allowed civil unions. In 2008 Norway officially legalised same-sex marriage

South Africa: The law was passed in favour of gay marriages and religious institutions and civil officers were given freedom to opt out in conducting ceremonies

Spain: In 2005, Spain amended their marriage laws, which now read thus: “Marriage will have the same requirements and results when the two people entering into the contract are of the same sex or of different sexes.”
Canada: The fight for gay marriage started in 2003 when several court cases were filed and after two years of fighting in court, those in favour of same-sex marriage were victorious and a legislation was passed by the Canadian parliament

Belgium: In 1998, Belgium recognised same-sex union through domestic partnership. The dominant Christian Democratic Party was out of power, when the legislation was passed and so the law hardly created any controversy

Netherlands: Netherlands remains a benchmark for all the countries legalising same-sex marriage. The Dutch Parliament was the first in the world to legalise gay marriage.

Golden Temple, Amritsar ,Punjab,India – All You Need To Know

Golden Temple, Amritsar – the Sikh Shrine located at Punjab has been conferred the ‘Most Visited Place in the World’ 2017 by London based organization – World Book of Records (WBR). The holy place witnesses 1 lakh visitors daily that include people from different religions, backgrounds, and cultures.

The temple’s kitchen uses 12,000 kg flour, 1,500 kg rice, 13,000 kg lentils and 2,000 kg of vegetables every day to serve langar, where visitors savor Guru’s langar with equality seated on a common floor.

The place has four cardinal entrances that signify openness to all religions, to all people

5 Historical Facts to know about the Golden Temple is the most visited place in the World

1. Famously known as ‘Sri Harimandir Sahib’ which means the Temple of God; Golden Temple was founded by the 4th Sikh Guru - Sri Ram Dass ji in 1577, when he initiated digging the Amrit Sarovar (Ambrosial Pool). The city of Amritsar is named after this water reservoir.

2. It was in December, 1588 that the 5th Guru Sri Arjan Devi ji brick lined the complex and commenced the building of the Golden Temple Complex. The foundation stone of Harimandir Sahib was laid by sufi saint Mir Mohammed Muayyinul Islam popularly known as Hazrat Mian Mir in Sikh history.

3. In August, 1604 Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji – the Holy book of Sikhs, was first installed in the Golden Temple and Baba Budha Ji was the first Head Priest.

4. Sri Guru Granth Sahib is considered the 11th & Final Guru of Sikhs and is a compilation of religious teachings, hymns and praises of the Lord (One God) written not just by the Ten Gurus but also by various Hindu and Muslim saints.

5. In 1830, Maharaja Ranjit Singh renovated Harimandir Sahib and plated its domes with 100KG Gold, hereafter; the name Swarn Mandir or Golden Temple became prevalent.