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Saturday, September 14, 2019

Kenya becomes 3rd country to roll out malaria vaccine

Health authorities in Kenya on Friday Sep 13,2019 started administering doses of the world’s only licensed malaria vaccine to young children in rural areas facing high transmission rates.

Kenya became the third African country to introduce the vaccine, after Malawi and Ghana. The aim is to reach about 360,000 children per year across the three countries.

The health ministry described the milestone on Twitter as “a historic day” for the East African country as the health minister launched vaccinations in remote Homa Bay county.

Malaria is a top killer in many African countries. According to the World Health Organization, the region accounted for 92% of the cases and 93% of malaria deaths in 2017.

The parasitic disease kills about 435,000 people every year, most of them children under 5 in Africa.

It took GlaxoSmithKline and partners more than 30 years to develop the vaccine, at a cost of around $1 billion. GSK is donating up to 10 million vaccine doses in the current vaccination initiatives.

Although the malaria vaccine only protects about one-third of children who are immunized, those who get the shots are likely to have less severe cases of malaria.

England's Joe Root completes 7000+ Runs in Test Cricket Thursday Sep 12,2019

Day One Thursday Sep 12,2019 5th Test @ The Oval against Australia in the 2019 Ashes Series


Joe Root became the 12th Englishman to reach 7,000 Test runs and is the third youngest player to reach the landmark.

Only Alastair Cook and Sachin Tendulkar were younger.

Only three England players have scored 7,000 runs in fewer innings than Joe Root's 158 (Wally Hammond - 131, Kevin Pietersen - 150, Alastair Cook - 151)

In the ongoing 2019 Ashes series, Joe Root bagged three ducks including two golden ducks. In this process, he became the first England skipper with three ducks in a Test series.

Youngest batsmen to score 7000 Test runs -
  1. 27y 346d - Alastair Cook
  2. 28y 193d - Sachin Tendulkar
  3. 28y 256d - Joe Root
7000 plus Test runs for England -
  1. 12472 - Alastair Cook
  2. 8900 - Graham Gooch
  3. 8463 - Alec Stewart
  4. 8231 - David Gower
  5. 8181 - Kevin Pietersen
  6. 8114 - Geoff Boycott
  7. 7728 - Michael Atherton
  8. 7727 - Ian Bell
  9. 7624 - Colin Cowdrey
  10. 7249 - Wally Hammond
  11. 7037 - Andrew Strauss
  12. 7022 - Joe Root

Friday, September 13, 2019

Amazon countries sign pact to better protect the rainforest Friday Sep 13,2019

Leaders of countries home to the vast Amazon signed a pact on Friday Sep 13,2019 aimed at sharing resources and taking greater steps to protect the world's largest tropical rainforest.

The talks, led by Colombian President Ivan Duque, took place in Leticia, the Colombian region home to part of the Amazon rainforest.

According to the "Leticia Amazon pact", the Amazonian countries will "strengthen coordinated action", "establish [a] regional cooperation mechanism", "increase efforts associated with monitoring forest cover", and "strengthen the capacities and participation of indigenous and tribal peoples", among other actions. The pact was thin on specifics, however. 

Among those in attendance at Friday's meeting were Peruvian President Martin Vizcarra, Ecuadorian President Lenin Moreno and Bolivian President Evo Morales, as well as the Suriname Vice President Michael Adhin, Brazilian Foreign Minister Ernesto Araujo and Guyana Natural Resource Minister Raphael Trotman. Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro who said he was unable to travel due to his health, joined via video conference.

Venezuela was not invited to the meeting

2019 Tunisian Presidential Election Sunday Sep 15,2019

Tunisians will head to the polls on Sunday September 15 to choose their new president in a hotly contested election.

More than seven million people are eligible to vote, roughly two-and-a-half million more than last year's local polls.

Initially scheduled to take place in Nov'19, the vote was brought forward following the death of President Beji Caid Essebsi in late July'19

Tunisia's electoral commission has confirmed the participation of 26 presidential candidates, including several political heavyweights.

 INTERACTIVE: Tunisia presidential elections 2019 - Voting  

The election will go to a runoff vote if no candidate achieves an absolute majority.

The second round is scheduled to take place in early November, after a parliamentary vote is held in October.

Although candidates have presented a plethora of ideas to help reform the economy and crack down on rampant corruption, the head of the state's mandate is in theory limited to foreign policy, defence and national security.

Under the terms of the 2014 constitution, the prime minister, who is nominated by parliament, is tasked with forming a government and running day-to-day affairs.

A number of prominent politicians will contest the presidential vote, including Prime Minister Youssef Chahed, Defence Minister Abdelkarim Zbidi and the Ennahdha party's vice president Abdelfattah Mourou.

Other hopefuls include former prime ministers Mehdi Jomaa and Hamadi Jebali as well as Moncef Marzouki, the president during the 2011-14 transition period.

There are also outsiders vying for the top position such as detained media mogul Nabil Karoui and Abir Moussi, one of two female candidates and a former deputy secretary-general in the party of deposed President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

INTERACTIVE: Tunisia presidential elections 2019 - Candidates

The Lifeline Express - World’s First Hospital Train

The Lifeline Express is the world’s first seven-coach hospital train donated by the Indian Railways to bring medical and surgical healthcare to doorstep of the rural population who cannot reach a hospital.

The Lifeline Express (LLE) has two operation theatres with a total of five operating tables fitted with world-class equipment and instruments.

At each location the LLE serves about 8,000 beneficiaries restoring sight, hearing, mobility, repairing cleft lips, treating epilepsy and dental care.

The Impact India Foundation has introduced screening patients for oral, breast & cervical cancer, as well as, testing for blood pressure and blood sugar

Canara Bank board gives in-principle approval for merger with Syndicate Friday Sep 13,2019

Canara Bank’s board of directors, on Friday Sep 13,2019, gave the in-principle approval for amalgamation of the bank with Syndicate Bank.

The in-principle approval for amalgamation of the two public sector banks (PSBs) is as advised by the Alternative Mechanism of Government of India (GoI) to commence the process of amalgamation, subject to applicable approvals, the bank said in a stock exchange notice

The amalgamation of Bengaluru-headquartered Canara Bank and Manipal-headquartered Syndicate Bank will create India’s fourth-largest PSB with business (deposits and advances) of 15.20-lakh crore and the third-largest branch network (10,342 branches)

Individually, Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank have total business of 10,43,249 crore and 4,77,046 crore, respectively. The combined entity will have 89,885 employees – Canara Bank (58,350) and Syndicate Bank (31,535)

2019 The Ashes Series England Vs Australia 5th Test @ The Oval Sep 12 -16,2019

Day Two Friday Sep 13,2019

England batted twice in the day. In the morning they went from 271-8 to 294 all out, a total that looked short of par on a flat pitch.

Jofra Archer took 6-62 to give England the upper hand in the fifth Ashes Test, despite yet more runs from Australia's Steve Smith on day two at The Oval. 

Pace bowler Archer was supported by three wickets from left-armer Sam Curran - including two in two balls - as the tourists were bowled out for 225.

England were 9/0 at the close of play with Rory Burns and Joe Denly at the crease giving a lead of 78 Runs
Jofra Archer ripped through the Australian batting line-up with six wickets for 62 runs, completing nine maidens in 23.5 overs

On his first appearance in the 2019 Ashes series, 21-year-old all-rounder Sam Curran took three important wickets

Steve Smith once again provided the biggest resistance for Australia with a score of 80

After falling to Jofra Archer for five, David Warner became the first opener to suffer eight single-figure dismissals in a single Test series. He now averages nine in this Ashes, with 61 of his 84 runs coming in one innings at Headingley.

There have now been 18 opening partnerships in succession in this series without a partnership of 50 - a world record.

Steve Smith now has a world record of his own: 10 successive scores of 50 or more against a single country, beating Inzamam-ul-Haq's sequence of nine for Pakistan against England. Smith's scores in that time have been 239, 76, 102*, 83, 144, 142, 92, 211, 82 and 80.

Steve Smith fell to Chris Woakes for the third time in the series - the only England bowler to dismiss him more than once (Stuart Broad, Joe Root and Jack Leach have each taken his wicket too)

Jofra Archer, only playing his fourth Test match, took his second five-for in Test cricket with an intelligent display of fast bowling

Google Celebrates Microbiologist Hans Christian Joachim Gram's166th Birth Anniversary Friday Sep 13,2019

Google is celebrating the 166th birth anniversary of Microbiologist Hans Christian Joachim Gram with a doodle in his honour.

Gram was born on September 13, 1853, in Denmark’s Copenhagen. Gram is best known for pioneering the method of the Gram stain to identify bacteria.

The Danish microbiologist earned an M.D. from the University of Copenhagen in 1878.

 He then traveled through Europe between 1883 to 1885 studying pharmacology and bacteriology

It was in 1884, while working in the lab of German microbiologist Karl Friedländer in Berlin, that he devised his famous staining technique that is now still used to identify and classify different types of bacteria. He followed the method of Paul Ehrlich, using aniline-water and gentian violet solution.

Gram noticed that treating a heat-fixed smear of bacterial cells with a crystal violet stain, followed by an iodine solution and an organic solvent, revealed differences in the structure and biochemical function of various samples.

Gram-positive bacteria remained purple because they have a single thick cell wall that is not easily penetrated by the solvent. While, gram-negative bacteria decolorized because they have cell walls with much thinner layers that allow removal of the dye by the solvent.

Gram’s discovery not only helps in the identification and classification of bacteria, it also helps decide the treatment of bacterial diseases. For example, the antibiotic penicillin is active only against Gram-positive bacteria. Like the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria will not take up the Gram's stain, it will not take up penicillin either. Pneumococci, which can cause many diseases, are classified as Gram-positive.

He published these findings the very same year in a scholarly journal and included a modest dislaimer that his findings are defective and imperfect but he hoped it would turn out to be useful in the hands of future investigators.

More than a century later, Gram’s simple staining method, named after its inventor, is still widely used.

Gram showed a keen interest in the clinical education of students throughout his career. He retired from his medical practice in 1923 and died at the age of 85 in 1938.

Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau dissolves Parliament, calls general election on October 21,2019

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on Wednesday dissolved the parliament and called a federal election for October 21, reports said.

The 47-year-old Trudeau, who is seeking a second term, visited Governor General Julie Payette, Canada`s acting head of state, on Wednesday morning to formally launch the campaign.

"Canadians get to vote once again for the country they want to live in," he told reporters outside her official residence

The cost of living, the economy and climate change are likely to be prominent issues for voters, while a string of controversies have dogged the tenure of Trudeau, who swept to power in November 2015, including the SNC-Lavalin issue and his India visit.

The NDP, led by Jagmeet Singh, is in the third place, on roughly 13-14 per cent support.

2019 South Africa Tour of India First T20I@ Dharamsala Sunday Sep 15,2019



Rohit Sharma (vc), Shikhar Dhawan, KL Rahul, Virat Kohli (c), Shreyas Iyer, Manish Pandey, Rishabh Pant, Hardik Pandya, Krunal Pandya, Ravindra Jadeja, Washington Sundar, Deepak Chahar, Rahul Chahar, Khaleel Ahmed, Navdeep Saini

South Africa

Quinton de Kock (c), Rassie van der Dussen (vc), Temba Bavuma, Junior Dala, Bjorn Fortuin, Beuran Hendricks, Reeza Hendricks, David Miller, Anrich Nortje, Andile Phehlukwayo, Dwaine Pretorius, Kagiso Rabada, Tabraiz Shamsi, George Linde


India have won 8 and lost 5 of the 13 matches played against South Africa

The first time these two teams met in a T20 match was in 2006 at the Wanderers Stadium, Johannesburg, in South Africa. India won that match by six wickets.

The last time these two teams met in a three-match T20 series was in 2018, when India toured South Africa, and the Men in Blue won that series 2-1.

Batting Performances

219/4 by South Africa in 2012 is the highest team total in matches between these two teams.
92 all out by India in 2015 is the lowest team total in matches between these two teams.
341 runs scored by Rohit Sharma is the highest number of runs scored by a player in matches between these two teams.
106 by Rohit Sharma in 2015 is the highest individual score by a player in matches between these two teams.
2 centuries have been scored in matches between these two teams. Both have been scored by Indian players - Rohit Sharma and Suresh Raina.
19 half-centuries have been scored in matches between these two teams
half-centuries scored by JP Duminy is the highest number of half-centuries scored by a player in matches between these two teams.
16 sixes hit by JP Duminy is the highest number of sixes hit by a player in matches between these two teams.

Bowling Performances

10 wickets taken by R. Ashwin is the highest number of wickets taken by a player in matches between these two teams.
5/24 by Bhuvneshwar Kumar in 2018 is the best bowling performance by a player in matches between these two teams. It is also the only instance of a player taking a five-wicket haul in T20 matches played between these two teams.

Wicket-keeping Performances

5 dismissals by MS Dhoni is the highest number of dismissals by a wicket-keeper in matches between these two teams.
2 dismissals by Dinesh Karthik in 2007 and by Heinrich Klaasen in 2018 is the highest number of dismissals by a wicket-keeper in an innings in matches between these two teams.

Fielding Performances

catches by Rohit Sharma and Suresh Raina each is the highest number of catches taken by a player in matches between these two teams.
catches by AB de Villiers in 2009, Rohit Sharma in 2019 and Suresh Raina in 2012 and again in 2018 is the highest number of catches taken by a player in an innings in matches between these two teams.

'Friday the 13th' - All U Need To Know

Considered to be an unlucky day earlier in the West and subsequently around the world, Friday the 13th, occurs when the thirteenth day of a month falls on a Friday. Interestingly, while it generally occurs once a year, it can happen thrice in the same year as well.

Notably, the superstition surrounding 'Friday the 13th' is supposed to have Biblical roots, originating with the Last Supper and crucifixion, and the superstition surrounding the day may have arisen in the Middle ages.

The Last Supper was attended by Jesus Christ and his 12 disciples. A total of 13 people attended the supper on Maundy Thursday, the night before his crucifixion by Roman soldiers on Good Friday.

Subsequently, the number 13, therefore, came to be associated with Christ’s betrayer Judas Iscariot.

Thus, it is considered as imperfect compared with 12, representing the annual number of months.

World Sepsis Day - September 13

World Sepsis Day is celebrated on September 13 every year as an opportunity for people around the world to unite in their fight against sepsis.

Notably, Sepsis is the common final pathway of all acute infections that arises when the body’s response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs.

The body releases certain chemical messengers, like prostaglandins, during infections, into the bloodstream to fight the disease-causing pathogens.

Sepsis occurs when the body's response to these chemicals goes out of control and start damaging the body.

According to the World Health Organization, sepsis may lead to shock, multiple organ failure, and death, especially if not recognized early and treated promptly. Sepsis accounts for millions of deaths worldwide annually. It is well known that sepsis can be prevented by vaccination and clean care. Furthermore, early recognition and treatment can reduce sepsis mortality.

The various symptoms of sepsis include fever, low body temperature, rapid breathing, a fast heart rate, confusion, and edema. Furthermore, early signs of the condition include rapid heart rate, decreased urination, and high blood sugar. Furthermore, it can also cause an altered mental status and restlessness as well as passing extremely little urine or no urine for the whole day.

Sepsis prevention can take place by getting timely vaccination against flu, pneumonia and other infections. Furthermore, practicing good hygiene is also important, along with getting immediate medical assistance if these are signs of a developing infection

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurates Jharkhand assembly building, lays foundation of state secretariat Thursday Sep 12,2019

Prime minister Narendra Modi on Thursday Sep 12,2019  inaugurated the Rs 465 crore newly constructed state-of-the-art Jharkhand assembly building, putting an end to the state’s 19-year wait for construction of its own assembly building and laid foundation stone of the Rs 1238 crore proposed construction of state secretariat.

The ground plus three floors magnificent structure of the assembly building has come up on a site of 39 acres of land at HEC township near Jagannath temple.

A symbolic one-day special assembly session has been convened on September 13 in this new building.

Inaugurating the assembly complex, Modi said, “It’s a historic day for Jharkhand. After 19-years of its creation, the state now gets its own assembly building and foundation stone of the proposed state secretariat has been laid.”

Central Wing: Assembly hall (150 seating capacity), chambers of CM, Speaker, deputy speaker with rest rooms, 400 seater conference hall, MLA lobby, press, officers, visitors galleries, library, canteen, dispensary and others
East Wing: 22 minister rooms, six committee rooms, establishment, budget, pension, question and answer sections, accounts, legislative section and others

West Wing: Chamber of leader of opposition, five committee rooms, parliament, public information, dispatch, whip sections, bank, post office and other services.

Service building: Electrical sub-station, AC plant room, police barrack, maintenance room, covered car parking (400 vehicles)


2019 The Ashes Series England Vs Australia 5th Test @ The Oval Sep 12 -16,2019

Day One Thursday Sep 12,2019

At close of play England were 271/8 with Jos Butler 64* and Jack Leach 10* at the crease

England slid from 170 for 3 to 226 for 8 and it appeared they wouldn't bat out the day.

But Jos Buttler changed gear - perhaps deciding to live by the two-letter expletive on his bat handle - with a pair of straight sixes off Josh Hazlewood on the way to his first half-century of the series and alongside Jack Leach added an unbroken 45 for the ninth wicket.

Remembering Lala Amarnath (Sep 11,1911 - Aug 05,2000)on his birth anniversay Wednesday Sep 11,2019

On this day in 1911, legendary Indian cricketer Lala Amarnath was born. His influence on Indian cricket went beyond the runs he made and the records he set, going on to become an administrator, selector, manager and even a broadcaster.

Amarnath became the first Indian to score a Test century on debut, when India played its first ever Test match on home soil in Bombay in 1933 against England. It was also under Amarnath’s captaincy in 1952 that India won its first ever Test series: A 2-1 win against Pakistan, sealing it in Delhi.

Overall, Amarnath played 24 Tests and scored 878 runs at an average of 24.3 and a highest score of 118. He also took 45 wickets. Amarnath’s legacy lived through his three sons, who all became first-class cricketers while two of them also went on to represent India in Tests.

Feroz Shah Kotla Renamed as Arun Jaitley Stadium, Virat Kohli Stand Unveiled

Home Minister Amit Shah with family members of the late politician-cum-sports-administrator Arun Jaitley digitally inaugurates the renamed 'Arun Jaitley Stadium' from Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium, in New Delhi

Home Minister Amit Shah presents a memento to family members of the late politician-cum-sports-administrator Arun Jaitley at an event to rename Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium as 'Arun Jaitley Stadium', during DDCA's Annual Awards function, in New Delhi

Home Minister Amit Shah and Indian cricket team Captain Virat Kohli digitally unveil a new pavilion stand bearing his name at newly renamed 'Arun Jaitley Stadium' in recognition of his contribution to the game, in New Delhi

2019 South Africa Tour of India - Amol Mazumdar Appointed South Africa Interim Batting Coach for the 3-match Test Series

Former Mumbai batsman Amol Muzumdar has been appointed South Africa's interim batting coach for the three-Test series in India.

Amol Muzumdar was a domestic stalwart and the second highest run-getter in the history of Ranji Trophy. He played 171 first-class matches for 11167 runs at an average of 48.13 with 30 centuries, and was unfortunate to miss out on national selections.

Amol Muzumdar retired in 2014 and has taken up various coaching roles since. He is the batting coach of the Rajasthan Royals in the IPL.

2019 South Africa Tour of India - BCCI Announce Team India for the 3-match Test Series Thursday Sep 12,2019

Shubman Gill got a maiden Test call up while out-of-form opener KL Rahul was axed from the India squad for the three-Test series against South Africa.

The absence of Umesh Yadav is the only other change in the 15-man squad from the one that won 2-0 in West Indies recently.

The BCCI confirmed that Rohit Sharma will open in the series, with Mayank Agarwal being the only other specialist opener. Rohit has never opened in Test cricket, but voices calling for him to be tried in that position have been growing in recent times. Rohit could not find a place in the XI for either of the two Tests in West Indies, with Hanuma Vihari sealing the middle-order spot.

Want to give Rohit Sharma an opportunity to open the innings in Tests - MSK Prasad
— BCCI (@BCCI) September 12, 2019

Rohit will get a chance to get used to that position in the three-day warm up match for Board President's XI, for which he has been named captain.

Gill, meanwhile, has been knocking on the doors of selection for nearly a year. The 20-year-old averages 72.15 from 14 first-class matches. He recently became the youngest to score a double-ton for an Indian representative side when he slammed 204* against West Indies A in Tarouba.

Gill is currently leading India A in the four-day games against South Africa A, and scored 90 in the first innings of India's win. Gill has played two ODIs for India.

Rahul has paid the price for poor form and inability to convert starts. He managed just 101 runs in four innings of the West Indies tour. Rahul has not scored a half-century in 12 innings since his 149 against England in the last Test of the 2018 tour. That knock too came after a string of poor performances.

There's little surprise in the rest of the squad, led by Virat Kohli. R Ashwin, Ravindra Jadeja and Kuldeep Yadav are the three spinners while Jasprit Bumrah, Ishant Sharma and Mohammed Shami will handle the pace department. Umesh, who had been a constant in home Tests in the last few years, has not been picked.

The first Tests starts on October 2 in Visakhapatnam before the series moves to Pune and Ranchi.
South Africa's warm-up match against Board President's XI begins on September 26 in Vizianagaram.

India’s squad for 3 Tests: Virat Kohli (Captain), Mayank Agarwal, Rohit Sharma, Cheteshwar Pujara, Ajinkya Rahane (vice-captain), Hanuma Vihari, Rishabh Pant (Wicket-keeper), Wriddhiman Saha (Wicket-keeper), Ravichandran Ashwin, Ravindra Jadeja, Kuldeep Yadav, Mohammed Shami, Jasprit Bumrah, Ishant Sharma, Shubman Gill.
Board President’s XI: Rohit Sharma (Captain), Mayank Agarwal, Priyank Panchal, AR Easwaran, Karun Nair, Siddhesh Lad, KS Bharat (wicket-keeper), Jalaj Saxena, Dharmendrasinh Jadeja, Avesh Khan, Ishan Porel, Shardul Thakur, Umesh Yadav

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Facebook’s Global Digital Currency ‘Libra’

On June 18, 2019 Facebook announced that it is going to launch a global digital currency by the first half of 2020.

The currency has been named Libra.

It will be run by the Libra Association, a Geneva-based entity that has over two dozen founding partners, including Facebook, Mastercard, Visa, Uber and the Vodafone group.

Almost immediately, concerns were raised by some lawmakers, commentators and even the co-founder of Facebook, Chris Hughes, who is now one of the foremost critics of the social media network he helped create.

A white paper released by the Libra Association says its mission “is to enable a simple global currency and financial infrastructure that empowers billions of people”.

The point it makes is this: in a world with cheap data and smartphones, about 1.7 billion adults are still outside the organised financial system in the world. This, despite a billion of them having mobile phones and nearly half a billion having Internet access.

The reasons for this are high fees, lack of access, and absence of documentation. Libra is being pitched as a solution to this. The promise is of financial inclusion on a global scale.

Gaurvi Singhvi (16) from Udaipur,India becomes world’s youngest open water swimmer to cross the English Channel

Gaurvi Singhvi (16) from Udaipur has made India proud by becoming the world’s youngest open water swimmer to cross the English Channel in 13 hours and 26 minutes last month

Starting from Samphire Hoe beach in England at 3 a.m. on August 23, Gaurvi reached Cap Gris-Nez in France by 4.28 p.m. She said, “More people have climbed Mount Everest than swum the English Channel. Open water swimming is not common in India due to the high-risk factor and the lack of exposure to adventure sports. For there to be more open water swimmers, we need proper facilities in every small town. But it also depends on the will of swimmers. I urge every one of them to try open water swimming once.”

The record for being the youngest swimmer to cross the English Channel is held by Thomas Gregory of United Kingdom, who achieved the feat in 11 hours, 54 minutes on September 6, 1988, at the age of 11.

The Channel Swimming Association has since raised the minimum age limit to 16 years.

China’s One Country Two Systems policy

To put it simply, it means that the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions, both former colonies, can have different economic and political systems from that of mainland China, while being part of the People’s Republic of China(PRC)

The One Country Two Systems policy was originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping shortly after he took the reins of the country in the late 1970s. Deng’s plan was to unify China and Taiwan under the One Country Two Systems policy. He promised high autonomy to Taiwan. China’s nationalist government, which was defeated in a civil war by the communists in 1949, had been exiled to Taiwan. Under Deng’s plan, the island could follow its capitalist economic system, run a separate administration and keep its own army but under Chinese sovereignty. Taiwan, however, rejected the Communist Party’s offer.

The island has since been run as a separate entity from the mainland China, though Beijing never gave up its claim over Taiwan.

The idea of two systems in one country resurfaced when Beijing started talks with Britain and Portugal, who were running Hong Kong and Macau, respectively.

The British had taken control of Hong Kong in 1842 after the First Opium War. In 1898, the British government and the Qing dynasty of China signed the Second Convention of Peking, which allowed the British to take control of the islands surrounding Hong Kong, known as New Territories, on lease for 99 years. London promised Peking that the islands would be retuned to China after the expiry of the lease, in 1997. Macau, on the other side, had been ruled by the Portuguese from 1557. They started withdrawing troops in the mid-1970s.

In the 1980s, Deng’s China initiated talks with both Britain and Portugal for the transfer of the two territories. In talks, Beijing promised to respect the region's autonomy under the One Country Two Systems proposal. On December 19, 1984, China and the U.K. signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration in Beijing, which set the terms for the autonomy and the legal, economic and governmental systems for Hong Kong post 1997.

Similarly, on March 26, 1987, China and Portugal signed the Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau in which China made similar promises for the region of Macau after it was handed over to Beijing.

Hong Kong returned to Chinese control on July 1, 1997, and Macau’s sovereignty was transferred on December 20, 1999.

Both regions became Special Administrative Regions of China.

The regions would have their own currencies, economic and legal systems, but defence and diplomacy would be decided by Beijing.

Their mini-Constitutions would remain valid for 50 years — till 2047 for Hong Kong and 2049 for Macau. It is unclear what will happen after this term.

Current Crisis in Hong Kong Explained

In recent years, there has been a growing outcry from Hong Kong’s pro-democracy civil society against China’s alleged attempts to erode the city’s autonomy.

This has created tensions between the city’s youth and the local government, which is effectively chosen by Beijing.

In 2016-17, six legislators critical of Beijing were debarred.

 In 2018, the Hong Kong National Party, a localist party that has been critical of Beijing, was outlawed.

This year, Carrie Lam, the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, proposed the extradition Bill, which sought to extradite Hong Kongers to places with which the city doesn’t have extradition agreements

 Critics said it would allow the city government to extradite Beijing critics to mainland China where the judicial system is subservient to the ruling Communist Party

This triggered the protests, and they went on despite Ms. Lam’s decision to suspend the Bill.

The protesters, who often clashed with the police, now want the Bill to be formally withdrawn, Ms. Lam to resign, the arrested protesters to be released and the city’s electoral system to be reformed.

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Earnings - All U Need To Know

The RBI earns money in a variety of ways.

Open market operations, wherein a central bank purchases or sells bonds in the open market in order to regulate money supply in the economy, are a major source of income for the RBI. Apart from the interest received from these bonds, the RBI may also profit from favourable changes in bond prices.

Dealings in the foreign exchange market that the RBI engages in may also contribute to the bank’s profits. The RBI, for instance, may buy dollars cheaply and sell them dear in the future to pocket profits. It should be noted, however, that unlike commercial banks, the primary mandate of the RBI is not to earn profits but to preserve the value of the rupee. Profit and loss are thus merely a side effect of its regular operations to shape monetary policy.

The RBI’s income typically comes largely from the returns it earns on its foreign currency assets, which could be in the form of bonds and treasury bills of other central banks or top-rated securities, deposits with other central banks, the interest it earns on its holdings of local rupee-denominated government bonds or securities; when lending to banks for very short tenures (such as overnight); and management commission on handling the borrowings of state governments and the central government

On August 26, 2019 the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) central board decided to transfer ₹1.76 lakh crore to the government (including a sum of ₹52,637 crore from its contingency reserve), a move that is likely to address the Central government’s precarious fiscal situation. The transfer amount included the payment of dividend worth ₹1.23 lakh crore, and funds from its reserves, as identified under a new economic capital framework (ECF) adopted by the RBI board. The RBI had formed a committee chaired by former RBI Governor Bimal Jalan to review its ECF last year.

Previously, the amount of surplus funds that the RBI had transferred to the government was

  •  ₹52,683 (2013-14)
  •  ₹65,896 (2014-15)
  •  ₹65,880 (2015-16)
  •  ₹30,659 (2016-17)
  •  ₹50,000 (2017-18)

The transfer of money from the vaults of the RBI to fund government spending will increase the amount of money supply in the economy, thus exerting an upward pressure on prices. The RBI’s transfer of surplus funds to the government could thus effectively turn into a monetary stimulus for the economy which has been slowing down for several consecutive quarters now.

Apple launches iPhone 11 at ₹64,990 (64GB), iPhone 11 Pro at ₹99,900 (64GB) and iPhone 11 Pro Max at ₹1,09,900 (64GB) Tuesday Sep 10,2019

The iPhone 11 is an update to the iPhone XR, while the 11 Pro and Pro Max are updates to the iPhone XS and XS Max.  The launch price for the iPhone 11 is lower than that of the iPhone XR (which was launched at 76,900) 

iPhone 11 price in India

Apple iphone 11 price will start at Rs. 64,900 in India and at $699 (roughly Rs. 50,000) in the US for the base 64GB variant.

The phone will also be offered in 128GB and 256GB variants that will retail at Rs. 69,900 and $749 (roughly Rs. 53,600), and Rs. 79,900 and $849 (roughly Rs. 60,800), respectively in India and the US.

The iPhone 11 will come in six colours – Purple, White, Green, Yellow, Black, and Red - and its pre-orders will open September 13 in US and over 30 countries around the world.

The sales will begin September 20 in the first batch for countries and September 27 in India.

iPhone 11 Pro and iPhone 11 Pro Max with triple camera set-up will be available in 64GB, 256GB and 512GB models in midnight green, space gray, silver and gold, starting at Rs 99,900 and Rs 109,900 respectively. 

2019 Onam Festival - All U Need To Know

Onam, the most popular festivals of Kerala, is being celebrated in Kerala and by the Malayalis across the world with great fervour and enthusiasm.

 Onam is celebrated to commemorate King Mahabali, whose spirit is said to visit Kerala at the time of this auspicious occasion.

Onam is also called Thiru-Onam or Thiruvonam (Sacred Onam Day). Sravanmahotsav is another name for this festival.

The 10-day festival that started on September 1 and will be on till September 13. Each day of Onam is given a different name and specific celebrations are done on each of these days

Atham (Day 1)
 The festival starts with designing Pookkalam in which only yellow coloured flowers are used. The size of Pookkalam grows day by day.

Chithira (Day 2)
 On this day, another layer of flowers is added to the Pookkalam and cleaning of house begins.

Chodi (Day 3)
 The day starts with adding a new layer of flowers to the Pookklam. From this day, families begin shopping.

Vishakam (Day 4)
 The day marks the start of various competitions in the state.

Anizham (Day 5)
 The much-awaited and enthralling Vallamkali Boat Race begins in most parts of Kerala on the day 5 of Onam.

Thriketa (Day 6)
 Schools in Kerala start to close for Onam on Day 6. People of the start from this day devote all their time to the celebrations.

Moolam (Day 7)
 Most places see the beginning of Ona Sadya and the dance performances related to the festival, Onam. The state wears a festive look with almost all corners adorned with decoration which is a treat to the eyes.

Pooradam (Day 8)
 On this day of Onam, statues of Vamana and King Mahabali are cleaned and installed in the centre of the Pookkalam.

Uthradom (Day 9)
 This is one of the most crucial days of Onam where people buy fresh vegetables and cook traditional meals. According to beliefs, King Mahabali reaches the state on this day.

Thiruvonam (Day 10)
 The festival sees much more enthusiasm among people and day 10 of Onam, people take an early bath, visit temples to offer prayers and exchange gifts. The lavish Onam Sadya (Special meal for Onam) is cooked in all households.

Normally, most of Onam celebrations end by Thiruvonam. However, following Thiruvonam Third and Fourth Onam are celebrated. The third Onam which is called Avvittom, marks the preparations for King Mahabali's return ascension to heavens. The main ritual of the day is to take the Onathappan statue, which was placed in the middle of every Pookkalam during the past 10 days, for immersion. Pookkalam is cleaned and removed after this ritual.

Indian Space Research Organisation(ISRO)'s Aryabhatta(April 1975) To Chandrayaan(July 2019)

ISRO's space odyssey started on August 15, 1969.

Within six years it achieved its first milestone on April 19, 1975 when the first Indian satellite -- Aryabhatta -- successfully entered outer space with the help of the Soviet space agency. Weighing 360 kg, Aryabhatta had a mission life of just six months. For India, that was its 'one small step, one giant leap' moment.

In many ways, the scale of Isro's space odyssey can be understood from how it journeyed from the age of Aryabhatta in 1975 to the age of something as complex as Chandrayaan-2 in 2019.

In this period, Isro sent 105 Indian satellites into space, developed its own independent launch systems, carried out 75 launches, reached the Moon twice, successfully sent a spacecraft orbiting Mars, besides sending 297 satellites of 33 countries and 10 satellites designed and built by Indian students

Of the 75 launches that Isro has carried out till date, only eight were unsuccessful. Besides this, two satellites failed in their orbits after being successfully launched while one suffered partial failure.

ISRO’s Timeline of Space Programme  

1960's: Journey of the formation of ISRO
About Mission
The Indian National Committee for Space Research is formed under the leadership of Vikram Sarabhai who is also known as father of India's space program and physicist Kalpathi Ramakrishna Ramanathan.

The first sounding rocket is launched from Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station in Kerala which is used for probing upper atmospheric regions and space research. It marks the beginning of the Indian space program.

Space Science and Technology Centre (SSTC) was established in Thumba on 1 Jan, 1965.
Satellite Telecommunication Earth Station set up at Ahmedabad on 1 Jan 1967
Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Station set up in Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was formed to harness space technology for national development.

1970s: Era of launching Satellites began

About Mission
Satish Dhawan Space Centre formed in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
Department of Space (DoS) established and ISRO brought under it.
On 19 April, first Indian Satellite, Aryabhata was launched into space. It marked a milestone in India's space programme because it was completely designed in the country and launched from a Russian facility.
Satellite Telecommunication Experiments Project
The first experimental remote-sensing satellite which was built in India was launched namely Bhaskara-I. The images send by it are used to study hydrology and forestry and oceanographic studies.

1980s: Satellite launch Vehicle, Communication satellite, remote sensing satellite launched

About Mission
India's first experimental satellite vehicle was launched namely Satellite launch Vehicle-3 (SLV-3) which makes ISRO sixth nation in space program. SLV-3 launched second time with Rohini. The mission was successful.
Rohini placed into orbit.
Communication Satellite Insat-1A was launched
Second developmental flight of SLV-3 placed Rohini into orbit.
A joint manned mission of India and Soviet Union has been launched. In this mission the first Indian cosmonaut, Rakesh Sharma, spends eight days in Russian space station Salyut 7.
ASLV was launched with SROSS-1 satellite.
Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRA-1A was launched

1990s: Era of PSLV

About Mission
Remote Sensing satellite IRS-1B was launched
ASLV first time was successfully launched
Developed in 1990s and has become the Indian space mission's most reliable workhorse. In 1993, PSLV carried out its first mission and its first successful mission was held in next year. No doubt for next 20 years, it launched several satellites for historic missions like Chandrayaan and Mangalyaan.
Successful launch of PSLV with IRS-P2
PSLV was launched with IRS-P3
PSLV was launched with IRS-1D
PSLV started carrying foreign satellites

2000s: GSLV and Chandrayaan-1 important missions was launched
About Mission
GSLV was successfully launched
Kalpana-1 satellite was launched
GSat-2 was launched
Edusat was launched
Launch of Cartosat-1 and Hamsat by PSLV
GSLV was launched with Insat-4C
Cartosat-2 was launched
India's Chandrayaan-1 first moon mission was launched by PSLV. Almost a decade ago, India's first unmanned lunar probe was launched and was a landmark in India's space mission. Do you know that after this ISRO joined an elite list of just six space organisations to send an Orbiter to the moon? A Tricolour was hosted on the moon but ISRO lost contact with Chandrayaan-1 soon after.
Radar Imaging Satellite (Risat-2) was launched
Launch of Cartosat-2B, STUDSAT and three small foreign satellites by PSLV
2010s: Mangalyaan, Chandrayaan-2 important launches
About Mission
Launch of Resourcesat-2 and two small satellites by PSLV
Risat-1 was launched by PSLV
- PSLV-C22 was successfully launched with India's first indigenous Regional Navigation Satellite IRNSS-1A on 1st July, 2013.
- PSLV-C25/Mars Orbiter Mission was launched in 5 November, 2013
- GSLV-D5 was successfully launched on 5 January, 2014.
- India's first interplanetary mission to the planet Mars known as Mars Orbiter mission (MOM) or Mangalyaan was launched. On 24 September, 2014, MOM entered Mars orbit. India became the first country in the world to insert a spacecraft into the Martian orbit in its very first attempt.
- On 18 December, 2014, GSLV Mk-III, the first experimental flight of ISRO's heaviest and upgraded rocket vehicle was launched from Sriharikota.
- India's 4th navigation satellite was launched.
- 100 days of Mangalyaan.
- 5 British satellites are launched by ISRO.
- On 28 September, 2015, India's first dedicated multi-wavelength space observatory Astrosat was successfully launched onboard a PSLV-C30 rocket.
- On 11 November, 2015, latest communication satellite of India GSAT-15 was successfully launched by Ariane-5 rocket from the spaceport of Kourou in French Guiana.
- On 16 December, 2015, PSLV-C29, in its 32 flight, launched six satellites of Singapore. Of these six satellites, TeLEOS-1 is the primary satellite whereas the other five are co-passenger satellites.
- On 20 January, 2016 PSLV-C31 in its 33rd flight launches IRNSS-1E, the fifth satellite of the Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS).
- On 10 March, 2016, PSLV-C32 in its 34rth flight, launches IRNSS-1F, the sixth satellite of the Indian regional navigational Satellite System (IRNSS).This is the thirty third consecutively successful mission of PSLV.
- On 28 April, 2016, PSLV-C33 in its 35th flight, launches IRNSS-1G, the seventh satellite of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) to a Sub-Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (Sub-GTO).
- On 23 May, 2016, RLV-TD was successfully flight tested.
- On 22 June, 2016, PSLV-C34, in its 36 flight launches the 727.5 kg Cartosat-2 Series Satellite for earth observation and 19 co-passenger satellites together weighing about 560 kg at lift-off into a 505 km polar Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO).
- On 28 August, 2016, The first experimental mission of ISRO’s Scramjet Engine towards the realisation of an Air Breathing Propulsion System was successfully conducted.
- On 8 September, 2016, GSLV-F05 is the tenth flight of India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), launching INSAT-3DR, an advanced weather satellite, weighing 2211 kg into a Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO).
- On 26 September, 2016, PSLV-C35, in its 37th flight, launches SCATSAT-1 for weather related studies and 7 co-passenger satellites into polar Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO).
- On 6 October, 2016, India's latest communication satellite GSAT-18 was inducted into the INSAT/GSAT system.
On 15 February, 2017, ISRO successfully launched 104 satellites using a single rocket from Sriharikota Space Centre.
On 5 May, 2017, GSLV successfully launches South Asia Satellite.
- On 5 June, 2017, First developmental flight of India's GSLV Mk III successfully launches GSAT-19 Satellites.
- On 23 June, 2017, PSLV-C38 successfully launches 31 Satellites in a single flight.
- On 29 June, 2017, India's GSAT-17 Communication Satellite launches successfully.
- On 31 August, 2017, PSLV-C39 flight carrying IRNSS-1H Navigation Satellite unsuccessful.
- On 12 January, 2018 PSLV successfully launches 31 Satellites in a single flight.
- On 23 March, 2018 ISRO-BHEL tie up for the production of Space Grade Lithium-Ion Cells.
- On 29 March, 2018 GSLV successfully launches GSAT-6A Satellite.
- On 12 April, 2018 PSLV-C41 successfully launches IRNSS-11 Navigation Satellite.
- On 25 April, 2018 GSAT-11 launch rescheduled.
- 22 June, 2018, discovery of a Sub-Saturn like Planet around a Sun-like star.
- On 16 September, 2018 PSLV-C42 launches 2 foreign satellites.
- On 14 November, 2018 GSLV MkIII-D2 successfully launches GSAT-29.
- On 29 November, 2018 PSLV-C43 successfully launches HysIS and 30 customer satellites.
- On 5 December, 2018, GSAT-11 India's heaviest communication satellite launched successfully from French Guiana.
- On 19 December, 2018, GSLV-F11 successfully launches GSAT-7A
- On 25 January, 2019, PSLV-C44 successfully launched Microsat-R and Kalamsat-V2.
- On 6 February, 2019 GSAT-31 India's Communication Satellite launched successfully from French Guiana.
- On 1 April, 2019 PSLV-C45 successfully launches EMISAT and 28 customer satellites.
- On 22 May, 2019 PSLV-C46 successfully launches RISAT-2B
- On 15 July, 2019 Chandrayaan-2 Moon Mission launched.

2019 Tunisiaian Presdential Election Sep 15,2019

With the death of President Beji Caid Essebsi on Thursday July 25,2019

Tunisians are preparing to elect a new head of state on September 15, two months earlier than originally planned

The first round of the presidential vote will precede parliamentary elections, scheduled for October, while a second-round runoff for the presidency would take place in Nov'19

Among the 26 candidates competing for the presidency are a number of political heavyweights: current Prime Minister Youssef Chahed, Defence Minister Abdelkarim Zbidi, jailed media mogul Nabil Karoui, and Abir Moussi, one of two female candidates and previously a senior official in deposed ruler Zine El Abidine Ali's party

Afghanistan skipper Rashid Khan beats Tatenda Taibu to become youngest ever Test captain

Newly appointed Afghanistan captain Rashid Khan Sep 05,2019 became the youngest ever Test skipper when he showed up for the toss before the one-off Test against Bangladesh in Chattogram on Thursday.

At 20 years and 350 days old, Rashid beat the previous record held by former Zimbabwe captain Tatenda Taibu by a mere 8 days. Taibu was 7 days short of his 21st birthday when he led his side against Sri Lanka in Harare on May 6, 2004.

India's Mansur Ali Khan Pataudi rounds up the top-3 in this regard, having made his captaincy debut against West Indies at the age of 21 years and 77 days on March 23, 1962

2019 Ramon Magsaysay Awards Ceremony Monday Sep 09,2019

Five people are being honored as this year's winners of the Ramon Magsaysay Awards, regarded as Asia's version of the Nobel Prize, including a South Korean who helped fight bullying and suicide and a Thai housewife who became a human rights defender after losing her husband to violence in southern Thailand

Ramon Magsaysay 2019 awardees, Filipino Raymundo Pujante Cayabyab, Thai Angkhana Neelapaijit, Indian Ravish Kumar, Burmese Ko Swe Win and South Korean Kim Jong-Ki poses during ceremonies in Manila, Philippines

Monday, September 9, 2019

Brother's Day - Malayalam Film

Cast - Prithiviraj Sukumaran,Aishwarya Lekshmi,Pragya Martin,Madonna Sebastian,Miya,Prasanna

Produced by Listin Stephen and Justin Stephen
Directed by Kalabhavan Shajohn
Music Composed by 4 Musics and Nadirshah
Cinematography by Jithu Damodar
scheduled to be released on Sep 06,2019

Ittymaani: Made in China - Malayalam Film

Cast Mohanlal,Honey Rose,Aju Varghese,Salim Kumar,Raadhika

Produced by Aashirwad Cinemas
Directed by Jibi Joju
Music Composed by 4 Musics,Kailash Menon and Deepak Dev
Cinematography by Shaji Kumar
scheduled to be released on Sep 06,2019

Love Action Drama - Malayalam Film

Cast Nivin Pauly and Nayanthara,Aju Varghese,Vineeth Sreenivasan
Produced by Visakh Subramaniam and Aju Varghese
Directed by  Dhyan Sreenivasan
Music Composed by Shaan Rahman
Cinematography by Jomon T John and Roby Varghese Raj
scheduled to be released on Sep 05,2019

2019 Muharram - Why Muslims mourn on this day; know history, significance of occasion that marks beginning of Islamic New Year Wed Sep 11,2019

Muharram, considered one of the most significant festivals celebrated by the Muslim community, marks the beginning of the Islamic New Year.

This year the 10th day of Muharram, also known as Ashura or 'Youm-e-Ashura', falls on Wed Sep 11,2019

Muharram which is the first month of the Islamic calendar is considered to be the holiest of all months after Ramzan for Muslims

Ashura is the day that Imam Hussain Ali, the grandson of Prophet Muhammad was martyred. Believed to be the third Imam of the Shia community, he was killed in 680 AD during the battle of Karbala (in present day Iraq), by the soldiers of the Caliph Yazid. Since then, Imam Hussain's and his relatives' death is mourned among the Muslim community

How Muslims around the world observe this day

Ashura or the tenth day of Muharram is observed differently by Shia and Sunni Muslims around the world

During the first ten days of the Muharram month, Shia sect observes a fast to mourn the death of Imam Hussain, and his family members and to honour the sacrifices made in the Battle of Karbala (in present day Iraq). Shia Muslims also refrain from attending and celebrating all joyous events in this period

Many Shias observe this day by participating in processions and self-flagellation. Mourners use sharp objects such as knives or chains which have blades attached to them and other weapons in acts of self flagellation while chanting 'Ya Hussain' loudly

Sunni Muslims, on the other hand, observe this day with a fast that lasts from sunrise to sunset. They also hold gatherings to remember the sacrifices of Imam Hussain and attend special prayers in mosques.

2019 Afghanistan tour of Bangladesh Only Test Match @ chittagong Monday Sep 09,2019

  Day 5 Monday Sep 09,2019

Afghanistan recorded their second ever Test victory in just their third ever match in the format, when they beat Bangladesh by 224 runs in the one-off Test at Chittagong on Monday Sep 09,2019

Earlier, rain delayed the start of the fifth day’s play in the one-off Test between Bangladesh and Afghanistan on Monday, with the visitors on the cusp of victory.

Having dominated in only their third ever Test, Afghanistan reduced the home side to 136 for six before rain forced an early close to the fourth day at the Zahur Ahmed Chowdhury Stadium in Chittagong.

Chasing an improbable 398, Bangladesh still require 262 to win with skipper Shakib Al Hasan unbeaten on 39 alongside Soumya Sarkar who his yet to score.

Afghanistan  342 and 260
Bangladesh   205 and 173(Target 398)
Match Result Afghanistan won by 224 Runs
MOM Rashid Khan(Afghanistan)for his 51 Runs and 5/55 and 6/49

Rashid Khan also became only the third captain to score a fifty in an innings and take a 10-wicket haul in a Test match. The others to do so are former Pakistan captain Imran Khan (against India in 1982-83) and the then Australia skipper Allan Border (against West Indies in 1988-89).

Rashid Khan, aged 20, also became the youngest ever captain in the history of Test cricket to record a maiden win

Rashid Khan became the youngest ever Test skipper when he showed up for the toss.
At 20 years and 350 days old, Rashid beat the previous record held by former Zimbabwe captain Tatenda Taibu by a mere 8 days. Taibu was 7 days short of his 21st birthday when he led his side against Sri Lanka in Harare on May 6, 2004.

Afghanistan also became the only Test side after Australia to win two of its first three Test matches. In March this year, Afghanistan recorded their maiden Test win when they defeated Ireland by 7 wickets in the One-off Test. Australia are the other team to have two wins in their first 3 Test

Rahmat Shah entered history books after his maiden Test hundred on Day One

Rahmat Shah got to the landmark right after the Tea break on Day 1 in a stoke-filled innings filled with class. Shah hit 10 boundaries and 2 sixes as he dominated the spin-only Bangladesh bowling attack on Thursday.
Rahmat Shah missed out on achieving the record earlier this year as he was dismissed on 98 against Ireland in their Test match in Dehradun. Shah had also fallen 24 short of a hundred in the 2nd innings of the Test which they went on to win by 7 wickets


1)Afghanistan played its first Test Match against India in June 2018 @ Bengaluru which it lost
2)Afghanistan played its second Test Match against Ireland in March 2019 which it won

Chandrayaan 2 - All U Need To Know


On Saturday Sep 07,2019,India’s first attempt to land a spacecraft on the Moon has not been successful. 

The lander of Chandrayaan-2, called Vikram, did not slow down at the expected rate towards the latter part of its descent, and most likely hit the lunar surface at a speed greater than required for safe landing. 

The ground control station had lost contact with the Vikram lander when it was about 2.1 km above the Moon.

The mission has not failed, although the attempt to land a spacecraft on the Moon certainly has.

The mission comprised an orbiter, a lander and rover.

The orbiter part is functioning normally. Most of the scientific investigations of the mission are supposed to be carried by instruments onboard the orbiter, including studies to find more evidence of water on the Moon.

The lander and rover had a mission life of only 14 days while the orbiter will function for at least one year.

Scientists insist that 80-90 per cent of the science output of the mission have to come from the orbiter, and that has not been affected at all.

When contact was lost, Vikram lander was travelling at 50 to 60 metres per second (180 to 200 km per hour). It was decelerating, but not fast enough to slow down to a speed of 2 metres/second (7.2 km/hr) that was required for a safe landing. Vikram was designed to absorb the shock of an impact even at 5 metres/second (18 km/hr). At the rate it was decelerating, it could not even have attained a speed of 5 metres/second before touchdown. It is likely to have hit the Moon at a far greater speed, possibly damaging itself and instruments on board.

2019 South Africa Tour of India 3-Match T20I & Test Series Sep 15 - Oct 23,2019

Match Schedule

3-match T20I Series

  • First T20I@ Dharamsala 0n Sep 15,2019
  • Second T20I@ Mohali on Sep 18,2019
  • Third T20I@ Bengaluru on Sep 22,2019

3-match Test Series

  • First Test @Visakhapattinam Oct 02-06,2019
  • Second Test @ Ranchi Oct 10-14,2019
  • Third Test @ Pune Oct 19-23,2019

South Africa T20I squad

 Quinton de Kock (c), Rassie van der Dussen (vc), Temba Bavuma, Junior Dala, Bjorn Fortuin, Beuran Hendricks, Reeza Hendricks, David Miller, Anrich Nortje, Andile Phehlukwayo, Dwaine Pretorius, Kagiso Rabada, Tabraiz Shamsi, Jon-Jon Smuts

India T20I Squad

 Virat Kohli (Capt), Rohit Sharma (vc), KL Rahul, Shikhar Dhawan, Shreyas Iyer, Manish Pandey, Rishabh Pant (WK), Hardik Pandya, Ravindra Jadeja, Krunal Pandya, Washington Sundar, Rahul Chahar, Khaleel Ahmed, Deepak Chahar, Navdeep Saini

South Africa Test squad

 Faf du Plessis (c), Temba Bavuma (vc), Theunis de Bruyn, Quinton de Kock, Dean Elgar, Zubayr Hamza, Keshav Maharaj, Aiden Markram, Senuran Muthusamy, Lungi Ngidi, Anrich Nortje, Vernon Philander, Dane Piedt, Kagiso Rabada, Rudi Second

2019 Bangladesh Tri-Nation T20I Series Sep 13 - 24,2019

Match Schedule

Ashok Leyland announces non-working days in five plants for Sep'19

Ashok Leyland on Monday Sep 09,2019 announced that the company will observe non-working days in five plants this month.

“We write to inform you that the following are the non-working days at our various plant locations during September 2019, due to continued weak demand for our products," said Ashok Leyland in a regulatory filing.

According to the filing, Ennore plant will have 16 non-working days, Hosur 1, 2 and CPPS five days, Alwar and Bhandara 10 days and Pantnagar will have 18 non-working days.

Ashok Leyland reported a 28% decline in total sales at 10,927 vehicles in July as against 15,199 units in the same month last year.

Total domestic sales were at 10,101 units last month as compared to 14,205 units in July 2018, down 29%, the company said in a statement.

Medium and heavy commercial vehicles (M&HCV) sales in domestic market were down 41% at 6,018 units last month as compared to 10,152 units in the year-ago period, it added.

 Light commercial vehicle sales in July 2019 stood at 4,083 units as compared to 4,053 units in same month last year, the company said.

National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Assam - All U Need To Know

The draft National Register of Citizens (NRC), published on Monday July 30,2018, includes only those able to prove they were in Assam before 1971.

 A look at some critical questions

Who is a D-voter?

Short for 'dubious' or 'doubtful, this is a category of voters disenfranchised by the govt for alleged lack of proper citizenship documents. Some 2.48 lakh people got the D-voter tag during NRC process

Who is a declared foreigner?

D-voters are tried by special tribunals under the Foreigners' Act and if they fail to defend their citizenship claim they are marked as declared foreigners and sent to any of six detention camps, which are within jails for criminals, for deportation. There were 91,206 declared foreigners as on December 31, 2017

Why is NRC being updated in Assam?

Officially, the NRC process will address the issue of illegal migrants, specifically from Bangladesh. The National Register of Citizens was first published in 1951 to record citizens, their houses and holdings. Updating the NRC to root out foreigners was a demand during the Assam Agitation (1979-1985)

Why is March 24, 1971 the cut-off date?

There have been several waves of migration to Assam from  Bangladesh, but the biggest was in March 1971  when the Pakistan army crackdown forced many to flee to India. The Assam Accord of 1985 that ended the six-year anti-foreigners' agitation decided upon the midnight of March 24, 1971 as the cut-off date.

Who is a citizen in Assam?

The Citizenship Act of 1955 was amended after the Assam Accord  for all Indian-origin people who came from Bangladesh before January 1, 1966 to be deemed as citizens. Those who came between January 1, 1966 and March 25, 1971 were eligible for citizenship after registering and living in the State for 10 years while those entering after March 25, 1971, were to be deported.

How did NRC verification begin in Assam?
The process of NRC update was taken up in Assam as per a Supreme Court order in 2013. In order to wean out cases of illegal migration from Bangladesh and other adjoining areas, NRC updation was carried out under The Citizenship Act, 1955, and according to rules framed in the Assam Accord.

How is verification carried out?
The updating process started in May 2015 and ended on 31 August 2015. A total of 3.29 crore people applied through 68.31 lakh applications. The process of verification involved house-to-house field verification, determination of authenticity of documents, family tree investigations in order to rule out bogus claims of parenthood and linkages and separate hearings for married women.

What happens to the excluded 40 lakh?

They will have to file for claims and objections and submit relevant documents for re-verification. The NRC office will issue claim forms from August 7 to 30, and these applicants would have to submit the forms from August 30 to September 28. The documents will be verified and accepted or rejected for the final NRC to be published on an unspecified date. The cases of those left out of the final NRC will be heard in the Foreigners' Tribunals, after which applicants can approach the High Court