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Monday, February 28, 2011




WRITING (ORIGINAL  SCREENPLAY) to David Seidler for :The King's Speech"

BEST DIRECTOR to Tom Cooper  for :The King's Speech"


BEST  ACTOR - Colin firth for "The King's Speech"


BEST ACTRESS -Natalie Portman for "black Swan"


BEST  SUPPORTING ACTOR - Christian Bale for "The Fighter"

 BEST  SUPPORTING ACTRESS -Mellisa Leo for 'The Fighter"

BEST FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILM goes to “In a Better World” Denmark (Its original Danish title is Hævnen, which means "The Revenge")



WRITING (ADAPTED SCREENPLAY) to Aaron Sorkin for the movie "The Social Networking"(A chronicle of the founding of Facebook, the social-networking Web site)

 MUSIC(ORIGINALSCORE) to Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross for "The Social Networking"

Art Direction &Costumes



Budget 2011-12 presented by Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee on 28.02.2011

Budget 2011Highlights

Budget Estimates 2011-12

Gross Tax Receipts                          Rs 9,32,440 crore

Non Tax Revenue Receipts             Rs 1,25,435 crore 

Total expenditure                             Rs 12,57,729 crore

Plan Expenditure                             Rs 4,41,547 crore 

Non Plan Expenditure                     Rs 8,16,182 crore  

The fiscal deficit of 4.6 per cent of GDP in 2011-12 works out to Rs 4,12,817 crore 

The Central Government debt as a proportion of GDP is estimated at 44.2 per cent for 2011-12  

Direct Tax - Personal Taxation

1)Tax exemption limit raised to Rs 1.8 lakh, from Rs 1.60 lakh for individual tax papers.(for resident women below the age of 60 years exemption limit retained at Rs1.90 lakhs.

2)For "senior citizens", the qualifying age reduced from 65 to 60 years and exemption limit raised to Rs 2.50 lakh from Rs 2.4 lakh

3)For "Very Senior Citizens" over 80 years the basic limit raised to Rs 5 Lakhs 

4)Deduction in addition to limit of INR 100,000 specified u/s 80CCE available to employees in respect of contributions (upto 10% of salary) made to notified Pension Scheme by the govt or any other employer 

4) Certain category of salaried taxpayers will not be required to file their income tax return

That is,The Board (Central Boards of Direct Taxes) shall soon notify a category of salaried taxpayers who will not be required to file a return of income as their tax liability has been discharged by their employer through deduction at source(TDS)


 Direct Tax - Corporate Tax

  • Corporate tax retained at 30% for domestic companies earning total income of over Rs 1 crore a year. 

  • Surcharge on domestic companies reduced to 5% from 7.5% .Surcharge on foreign companies reduced from 2.5% to 2%

  • Weighted deduction for contributions made to national laboratory or a university or IIT or a specified person for scientific research, increased to 200%.

  •  Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT)increased to 18.5 % from 18% on book profits

  •   15 % tax on dividends received by an Indian company from its foreign subsidiary 

    • Due date for filing the return of income by a company which is required to report its international transactions in Form 3CEB is extended to 30 November 

    • Rate of tax on income distributed by mutual funds (other than equity oriented funds) to a person other than individual or HUF, increased to 30% (plus applicable surcharge and cess).

    Indirect Taxes 

    • Peak rate of duty maintained at 10%. Basic duty rate increased from 4% to 5% to align with state VAT rates

    • Interest rate for delayed payment of duty increased from 13% to 18% with effect from 1 April 2011 and penalty provisions amended

    • Definition of capital goods amended to include goods used outside the factory for generation of electricity for captive use
    • Input and input services redefined to exclude specified goods and services  
    • Ready-made garments and made-ups of textiles  mandatory levy at a unified rate of 10 %from optional levy(apply only to branded garments or made-ups)
    • Service tax  

      No change in the effective service tax rate of 10.3% 

      Service tax extended to services by air conditioned restaurants having liquor license and to short term accommodation in hotels

      Scope of seven existing service categories expanded,including life insurance service, legal service, health service and commercial training and coaching service

      Interest for delayed payment of service tax increased to 18% a year and penalty provisions amended

       Budget 2011-12 lets down common man
      Budget 2011-12 has let down the common man's expectation of some reliefs from inflation/rising prices.This is so because -
      Peak rate of duty maintained at 10%(which could have been reduced on items of mass consumption)
      Basic duty rate increased from 4% to 5% to align with state VAT rates, which has inflationary effect.
      Also an increase in excise duty by 1% without Cenvat facility has been proposed on about 130 items such as processed foodstuff, textile goods, drugs, medical equipment etc. used by the masses which could have avoided   
    • Pegging subsidies lower than the previous year's budgeted amount may be unrealistic given the rise in international petroleum prices and with the CG  bound to increase the prices of petroleum products at regular intervals, further escalating inflation     

    Saturday, February 26, 2011

    ரயில்வே பட்ஜெட் 2011-12

    மத்திய ரயில்வே அமைச்சர் மம்தா பானர்ஜி 2011-12-ம் நிதி ஆண்டுக்கான ரயில்வே பட்ஜெட்டை வெள்ளிக்கிழமை 25.02.2011தாக்கல் செய்தார்.

    காங்கிரஸ் தலைமையிலான ஐக்கிய முற்போக்குக் கூட்டணி அரசு இரண்டாவது முறையாக பதவியேற்ற பிறகு மம்தா பானர்ஜி தாக்கல் செய்யும் 3-வது பட்ஜெட் இது.              


    ரயில்வே பட்ஜெட்டில் பயணிகள் கட்டணம் உயர்த்தப்படவில்லை. சரக்குக் கட்டணமும் உயர்த்தப்படவில்லை( தொடர்ந்து 8-வது ஆண்டாக பயணிகள் கட்டணம் உயர்த்தப்படவில்லை)
     ட்ஜெட்டின் முக்கிய அம்சங்கள்
    முன்பதிவுக் கட்டணம் 50 சதவீதம் குறைக்கப்படும்.
  • முன்பதிவுக் கட்டணம் முதல் வகுப்புக்கு ரூ.10,

  • பிற வகுப்புகளுக்கு ரூ.5 ஆகக் குறைப்பு.

    • மூத்த குடிமக்களுக்கு வழங்கப்படும் கட்டணச் சலுகை 30 சதவீதத்தில் இருந்து 40 சதவீதமாக உயர்த்தப்பட்டுள்ளது.
    • மூத்த குடிமக்களில் பெண்களுக்கான வயது வரம்பு 60-லிருந்து 58-ஆகக் குறைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. 
    • பத்திரிகையாளர்களின் மனைவியர், ஆண்டுக்கு இரண்டு முறை பாதி கட்டணத்தில் சொந்த ஊருக்கு பயணம் செய்யலாம்
    • மாற்றுத் திறனாளிகளுக்கு சதாப்தி ரயிலிலும், ராஜதானி ரயிலிலும் கட்டண சலுகை உண்டு
    • ரயில், புறநகர் ரயில், மெட்ரோ ரயில் ஆகிய மூன்றிலும் பயணிக்கும் வகையில் ஒரு அட்டை சோதனை அடிப்படையில் அறிமுகப்படுத்தப்பட உள்ளது.இந்த அட்டைகளை முன் பதிவு மையங்களிலும், இணைய தளம் மூலமாகவும் பெற முடியும்.

    • பட்ஜெட் வருவாய் ரூ.1,06,239 கோடி.செலவு ரூ.73,650 கோடி
    • 2011-12-ம் நிதி ஆண்டில் ரயில்வே திட்டப் பணிகளுக்கு ஒதுக்கப்பட்ட தொகை ரூ. 57,360 கோடி. இதன் மூலம் 1,000 கி.மீ. தூரத்துக்கு புதிய ரயில் பாதை அமைப்பது, இரு வழிப் பாதை 867 கி.மீ. தூரத்துக்கு அமைப்பது, 1,017 கி.மீ. தூர மீட்டர் கேஜ் பாதைகள் அகலப் பாதைகளாக மாற்றுவது போன்ற பணிகள் மேற்கொள்ளப்படும்
    • நாடு முழுவதும், 1,300 கி.மீ., தூரத்திற்கு புதிய ரயில்பாதைகள் அமைக்கப்படும். இதற்கு ரூ.9,583 கோடி செலவிடப்படும்.
    • 867 கி.மீ., வரை இரட்டை ரயில்பாதை அமைக்கப்படும். இதற்கு ரூ.5,406 கோடி செலவிடப்படும்
    • 1,017 கி.மீ., தூரத்திற்கு அகலப்பாதை மாற்றம் செய்யப்படும். அதற்கு ரூ.2,470 கோடி செலவிடப்படும்
    • பின்தங்கிய மாநிலங்களான ஒரிசா, ஜார்க்கண்ட், சத்தீஸ்கர், பிகார் ஆகியவற்றில் 19 திட்டப்பணிகளுக்காக ரூ.771 கோடி ஒதுக்கப்படும்
    • நாடு முழுவதும் உள்ள 236 ரயில் நிலையங்கள் தேர்ந்தெடுக்கப்பட்டு, அவை ஆதர்ஷ் ரயில் நிலையங்கள் என்ற பெயரில், மாதிரி ரயில் நிலையங்களாக ஆக்கப்படும்
    • கேரளாவிலும், மேற்குவங்கத்திலும் பயணிகள் ரயில் போக்குவரத்து டெர்மினல் அமைக்கப்படும்
    • மேற்கு வங்கத்தில் சிங்கூரில் மெட்ரோ ரயில் பெட்டி தொழிற்சாலை அமைக்கப்படும்
    • மணிப்பூரில் டீசல் லோக்கோமோட்டிவ் ரயில் தொழிற்சாலை அமைக்கப்படும்
    • சென்னையில் ஒன்பது புறநகர் மின்சார ரயில்கள் புதிதாக இயக்கப்படும்
    • மதுரைக்கும், சென்னைக்கும் இடையில் ஒரு "துரந்தோ' ரயில் இயக்கப்படும். இது உட்பட நாடுமுழுவதும் ஒன்பது புதிய "துரந்தோ' ரயில்கள் அறிமுகப்படுத்தப்படும். 


    Friday, February 25, 2011

    புள்ளியியல் ஆசிரியர்கள்

    கடந்த 33 ஆண்டுகளாக புள்ளியியல் பாடத்துக்கு புள்ளியியல் முதுகலை ஆசிரியர்களை நியமிக்காமல் புள்ளியியல் பாடத்தை புள்ளியியல் முதன்மைப்பாடம் அல்லாத பிற ஆசிரியர்களால்  பாடம் நடத்தப்பட்டு வருகிறது.

    கோவை, ஈரோடு, வேலூர், சென்னை, புதுக்கோட்டை, திண்டுக்கல், காஞ்சிபுரம், விழுப்புரம், மதுரை, சிவகங்கை, திருவாரூர், திருநெல்வேலி ஆகிய 12 மாவட்டங்களில் 104 அரசு மேல்நிலைப்பள்ளிகளில் பிளஸ் 1, பிளஸ் 2 வகுப்பில் புள்ளியியல் பாடப்பிரிவு நடைபெற்று வருகிறது. இதில் 6,927 மாணவர்கள் புள்ளியியல் பாடத்தை படிக்கின்றனர்

    மேல்நிலைக் கல்வியில் 1978-ம் ஆண்டு முதல் 2011-ம் ஆண்டு வரை 33 ஆண்டுகளாக புள்ளியியல் முதுகலை ஆசிரியர் பணி நியமனம் செய்யாமல், புள்ளியியல் முதன்மைப்பாடம் அல்லாத ஆசிரியர்களை நியமித்து போதிக்கப்பட்டு வருகிறது

    இதுகுறித்து தமிழ்நாடு பள்ளிக்கல்வி செயலர் (மேல்நிலைக்கல்வி) மற்றும் பள்ளிக் கல்வி இயக்குநர் (மேல்நிலைக்கல்வி) புள்ளியியல் பாடப்பிரிவில் புள்ளியியல் முதுகலை பட்டதாரி ஆசிரியர்களை நியமிக்க வேண்டியும், அரசின் கொள்கை முடிவுக்கு பரிந்துரை வழங்கியும், புள்ளியியல் முதுநிலை பட்டதாரி ஆசிரியர்கள் கூட்டமைப்பு தமிழக முதல்வர் மற்றும் தமிழக ஆளுநர், உயர் கல்வித்துறை அமைச்சர் ஆகியோர்களுக்கு கோரிக்கை மனு அனுப்பி உள்ளனர் 


    Wednesday, February 23, 2011

    ICC Cricket World Cup

    ICC Cricket World Cup is the premier international championship of men's ODI Cricket organised by the sport's governing body, the  ICC every four years.The tournament is the world's fourth largest and most viewed sporting event.


    10 Highest Individual Scores in ICC Cricket World Cup

    1. Gary Kirsten – 188* (159) V U.A.E at Rawalpindi 1996
    2. Sourav Ganguly – 183 (158) V Sri Lanka at Taunton 1999
    3. Viv Richards – 181 (125) V Sri Lanka at Karachi 1987
    4. Kapil Dev – 175* (138) V Zimbabwe at Tunbridge Wells 1983
    5. Virender Sehwag – 175 (140) V Bangladesh at Dhaka 2011
    6. Craig Wishart – 172* (151) V Namibia at Harare 2003
    7. Glenn Turner – 171* (201) V East Africa at Birmingham 1975
    8. Andrew Hudson – 161 (132) V Netherlands at Rawalpindi 1996
    9. Imran Nazir – 160 (121) V Zimbabwe at Kingston 2007
    10. Matthew Hayden – 158 (143) V West Indies at North Sound 2007

                                     1975 Cricket World Cup
    The first Cricket World Cup contest was organised in England in 1975 and officially known as the Prudential Cup after the sponsors Prudential PLC.Eight teams participated in the first tournament: Australia, England, India, NewZealand, Pakistan, and the West Indies (the six Test nations at the time), together with Sri Lanka and a composite team from East Africa.The tournament was won by the West Indies, who defeated Australia by 17 runs in the final at Lords.WI Score 291 for 8 in 60 Overs with Clive Lloyd top scoring 102 Runs.Australia were all out for 274 Runs with Ian Chappel top Scoring 62 Runs.

    The Prudential Cup Trophy  Clive Lloyd,Captain West Indies lifting the Cup

                                                   1979 Cricket World Cup
     Held from June 9 to June 23, 1979 in England.Eight countries participated namely Australia, England, India, NewZealand, Pakistan, and the West Indies (the six Test nations at the time), together with Sri Lanka and Canada.
    West Indies Won the Cup for the second time.
    West Indies Scored  286 (9 wickets, 60 overs).
    England all out for 194 in 51 overs
    Viv Richards Declared Man Of the Match for his 138 Runs from (157 balls, 11 fours, 3 sixes)

                                                               1983 Cricket World Cup
    Held from 9 June to 25 June 1983 in England.8 countries participated,namely,Australia, England, India, NewZealand, Pakistan, and the West Indies (the six Test nations at the time), together with Sri Lanka andZimbabwe
    In the final, India lost the toss and were asked to bat first against a West Indies.
    India Scored 183 in 54.4 Overs.With Kris Srikkanth top scoring 38 of 57 balls.
    India defeated West Indies by 43 Runs by restricting them to 140 in 52 Overs.
    Viv Richards top scored for West Indies with 33 from 28 balls.
    Mohinder Amarnath declared Man Of The Match for his all-round display for scoring 26 Runs and taking 3 Wickets for just 12 Runs.

                                                           1987 Cricket World Cup
    Named as Reliance World Cup and held in India and Pakistan.
    The games were reduced from 60 to 50 overs
    8 countries participated,namely,Australia, England, India, NewZealand, Pakistan, and the West Indies (the six Test nations at the time), together with Sri Lanka andZimbabwe
    Australia Scored 253 (5 wickets, 50 overs) with David Boon top scoring for Australia(75 from 125 balls)
    England Scored 246 for 8 in 50 Overs with Bill Athey top scored for England(58 from 103 balls)
    Australia defeated England by 7 Runs and lifted the Cup in Eden Gardens Calcutta
    David Boon was the "Man Of the Match" 

                                                           1992 Cricket World Cup
    Held from 22 February to 25 March 1992 in Australia and NewZealand  
    Sponsored by Benson & Hedges
    The first to feature coloured player clothing, blue cricket balls and silver sightscreens with a number of matches being played under floodlights
    9countries participated,namely,Australia, England, India, NewZealand, Pakistan, West Indies,SriLanka,Zimbabwe and South Africa
    Pakistan defeated England by 22 Runs in MCG Australia
    Pakistan Scored 249/6 (50 overs) ImranKhan topscored with 72 Runs (110 Balls )
    England were all out for 227 in 49.2 Overs Neil Fairbrother topscored with 62 ( 70 Balls )

    1996 Cricket World Cup
    Held in  India ,Sri Lanka  and Pakistan and called Wills world Cup after its sponsors.
    Australia;England;NewZealand;India;Srilanka;Pakistan;WestIndies;SouthAfrica;Zimbabwe;Kenya;UAE and Netherlands were the partcipating countries.
    Srilanka Won the Cup defeating Australia by 7 Wickets in Gaddafi Stadium Lahore
    Australia Scored 241/7 (50 Overs)
    Srilanka Scored 245/3 (46.2 Overs)
    Mark Taylor topscored for Australia 74 Runs(109Balls)
    Aravinda de Silva topscored for SriLanka 107 Notout ( 176 Balls)
    Aravinda de Silva was the "Man Of The Match" for his unbeaten 107 and 3 wickets, and 2 catches

                                                   1999 Cricket World Cup 
    Hosted by England, with some matches also being held in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and the
    The12contestants(Australia;England;NewZealand;India;Srilanka;Pakistan;WestIndies;SouthAfrica;Zimbabwe;Kenya;Bangladesh and Scotland) were divided into 2 groups, in each of which teams played each other in the league stage. The top three from each group advanced to the Super Sixes, a new concept brought about in this World Cup
    Australia Won the Cup defeating Pakistan by 8 Wickets in Lords,London,England
    Pakistan were all out for 132 (39 overs) with Ijaz Ahmed topscoring 22 Runs ( 46 Balls)
    Australia Scored 133/2 (20.1 overs) with Adam Gilchrist topscoring 54 Runs (36 Balls)
    Shane Warne was the "Man Of The Match for his 4-33                                                                                 


                                   2003 Cricket World Cup 
    played in South Africa-Zimbabwe-Kenya  from 9 February to 24 March 2003
    The14contestants(Australia;England;NewZealand;India;Srilanka;Pakistan;WestIndies;SouthAfrica;Zimbabwe;Kenya;Bangladesh Canada,Namibia and Netherlands)
    Australia Won the Cup defeating India by 125 Runs in Wanderers Stadium ,Johannesburg,South Africa
    Australia scored  359 for 2 in 50 Overs with Ricky Ponting topscoring 140 Runs (138 Balls)
    India all out for 234 Runs in 39.2 Overs with Virendar Sehwag topscoring 82 Runs (107 Balls)
    Ricky Ponting was the "Man Of The Match"                     


    At least 65 people were feared dead as a 6.3-magnitude earthquake struck New Zealand's southern city of Christchurch early Tuesday 22.02.2011, damaging buildings and sending thousands of panicked people rushing into the streets.                                                                              

    There had been "multiple" fatalities at several locations after the quake hit around 12.51 pm local time five kilometres from the city at a depth of just four kilometres.

    It was the second major quake to hit Christchurch, a city of 350,000, in five months, though Tuesday's 6.3-magnitude temblor caused far more destruction than a stronger September quake
                                                      Christchurch Cathedral fallen tower                                                    

    Christchurch's mayor declared a state of emergency, saying it was a "black day" for the city

    The Christchurch earthquake will cost up to $11 billion and affect GDP growth by 1.5 per cent, the New Zealand government said on06.03.2011


    International rescue teams intensified their search for earthquake survivors in New Zealand on Thursday, with the death toll nearing 100 and police said they were gravely concerned about the more than 200 people still missing.
    Teams from quake-prone countries such as Japan and the United States sent in sniffer dogs and lowered microphones into piles of rubble to probe for signs of life, two days after a 6.3 magnitude quake struck the tourist city of Christchurch.

    Grieving New Zealanders prayed in the earthquake-ravaged city of Christchurch on Sunday27.02.2011 as rescuers pulled apart leveled buildings in their desperate search for survivors six days after the devastating tremor that killed 147 people.



    Anti-government protests in Libya

    With an area of almost 1,800,000 Sq.Km (700,000 Sq.Mile), Libya is the 4th largest country in Africa by area, and the 17th largest in the World. 

    The Capital Tripoli is home to 1.7 million of Libya's 6.4 million people.Libya is one of the world's 10 richest Oil Producing Countries and it produces 2% of the World's Oil.Also the oil that has been discovered and produced in Libya is of very high quality which is good for producing transport fuels.

    A map from Libyan Natural Oil Company (LNOC) in 2008 shows that two-third of the country is yet unexplored or yet to be leased

    Libya exports 1/3rd of the oil to Italy which accounts for nearly a quarter of Italy’s oil import and a natural gas pipeline linking the two countries.
    Germany imports 14 per cent of it out from Libya along with Ireland which counts on Libya for nearly a quarter of its oil import.                                                                                              

     Libya Revolt and fall of Gadaffi - February - October 20,2011

    February 2011
    The arrest of human rights activist Fethi Tarbel starts a riot in Benghaz
    Anti-government militias take control of central coastal city of Misurata after evicting forces loyal to Gaddafi. 
    The U.N. Security Council imposes sanctions on Gaddafi and his family, and refers the crackdown on rebels to the International Criminal Court(ICC)
    EU governments approve sanctions against Gaddafi 
    March 2011
    The rebel National Transitional Council (NTC) in Benghazi declares itself Libya's sole representative   
    The U.N. Security Council votes to authorise a no-fly zone over Libya and military action – to protect civilians against Gaddafi's army. 
    NATO air strikes halt the advance of Gaddafi's forces on Benghazi and target Libya's air defences
    April 2011
    A Nato missile attack on a house in Tripoli kills Gaddafi's youngest son and three grandchildren
    June 2011
    The ICC issues arrest warrants for Gaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam and intelligence chief Abdullah al-Senussi on charges of crimes against humanity
    August 2011
    Rebels enter Tripoli overrun Gaddafi's fortified Bab al-Aziziya compound in Tripoli, trashing the symbols of his rule
    Gaddafi's wife, his daughter Aisha and two of his sons enter Algeria.
    September 2011
    Libya's interim rulers meet world leaders at a conference in Paris to discuss reshaping Libya
    Interim prime minister Mahmoud Jibril arrives in Tripoli on his first visit since it was taken by his forces and makes his first speech in Tripoli to a crowd of about 10,000. 
    France's Nicolas Sarkozy and Britain's David Cameron land in Libya
    The U.N. Security Council eases sanctions on Libya, including on its national oil company and central bank.
    The U.N. General Assembly approves a request to accredit interim government envoys as Libya's sole representatives at the U.N., effectively recognising the NTC.
    U.S. President Barack Obama calls for the last of Gaddafi's loyalist forces to surrender as he announces the return of the U.S. ambassador to Tripoli
    The interim rulers(NTC)say they have captured most of Sabha, one of three main towns where Gaddafi loyalists have been holding out since the fall of Tripoli. Gaddafi's birthplace Sirte and the town of Bani Walid continue to resist
    October 2011
    Government fighters capture Gaddafi's son Mo'tassim after he tried to escape Sirte. 
    NTC forces say they have control of the whole of Sirte except neighbourhood 'Number Two' where Gaddafi forces are surrounded.  
    NTC forces celebrate the capture of Bani Walid, one of the final bastions of Gaddafi loyalists. 
    U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton arrives in Libya on an unannounced visit, urges militias to unite
    NTC fighters capture Sirte, Gaddafi's hometown, ending a two-month siege and extinguishing the last significant hold out of troops loyal to Gadaffi - Oct 20,2011
    Gaddafi  killed after being captured in Sirte - Oct 20,2011


    Libya's ambassadors at the United Nations are calling for leader Moammar Gaddafi to step down as the country's ruler. Deputy Ambassador Ibrahim Dabbashi said on Monday that if Gaddafi does not relinquish power, "the Libyan people will get rid of him."     

    "I am not going to leave this land, I will die here as a martyr," Moammar Gaddafi said on state television on tuesday 22.02.2011, refusing to bow to calls from his own diplomats, soldiers and protesters clamouring in the streets for an end to his four decades at the helm.
     Facing an unprecedented revolt against his 41-year rule, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi today 22.02.2011 appeared on state television dismissing reports that he had fled the country, calling foreign news channels "dogs".
    Global oil companies said Monday that they were making plans to evacuate employees in Libya after some operations there were disrupted by political unrest. Libya holds the largest crude oil reserves in Africa

    On Tuesday 22.02.2011, the first official figures released by Gaddafi's regime since unrest broke out a week ago put the number of people killed at 300 people -- 189 civilians and 111 soldiers.
    Heavy weapons were being used to crush the uprising

    The Ministry of External Affairs has started the process to evacuate about 18,000 Indians stranded in strife-torn Libya. A passenger cruise ship has been stationed close to Libyan waters in order to ferry people across to Egypt.India is waiting for permission from Libya to dock ships and allow planes to land at its airports
     The son of Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi Saif al-Islam Gaddafi on early Monday21.02.2011 proposed the speedy implementation of significant democratic reforms in the traditionally restrictive country, while warning of a chaotic civil war, return to colonialism and mass poverty if citizens sided with anti-government demonstrators


    Several hundred people in Britain took part in a demonstration in front of the Libyan Embassy in London on Sunday20.02.2011
    Britain has revoked the diplomatic immunity of Libya's Muammar Gaddafi and his family and called on the autocratic leader to step down

    Britain has shutdown its embassy in Libyan capital Tripoli, temporarily discontinuing diplomatic activities

    The French foreign ministry has announced that it has closed its embassy in Libya and ceased all diplomatic activities

    Canada has suspended its diplomatic presence in Libya and evacuated its embassy staff

    The US embassy in Libya has shut down temporarily and has evacuated all of its diplomats.Department of State has temporarily withdrawn embassy personnel from Tripoli and suspended all embassy operations effective February 25, 2011
    The United Nations Security Council unanimously approved a draft resolution on Saturday to impose sanctions against Libya.It includes an arms embargo, asset freeze and travel bans for Gaddafi and several of his associates. The resolution also refers the situation unfolding in Libya to the International Criminal Court

    UN chief Ban Ki-moon has asked the powerful Security Council to take "concrete action" against Muammar Gaddafi's regime in Libya to stop his forces' bloody crackdown against anti-government protesters

    Libyan protesters celebrated in the streets of Benghazi(2nd largest City) on Monday 21.02.2011, claiming control of the country's second largest city after bloody fighting, and anti-government unrest spread to the capital with clashes in Tripoli's main square for the first time

     A girl celebrates and displays the victory sign in Benghazi after Libyan protesters claiming control of Benghazi,the country's second largest city after bloody fighting - Monday 21.02.2011

     People visit Gaddafi's burnt-out residence at the stormed al-Katiba base in Benghazi. Al-Katiba is a Libyan internal security forces facility that hosted offices, a training field, an official ceremonies platform, an underground secret detention camp and the residence of the Libyan leader.

     Destroyed administrative building of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi in Tripoli after being hit by a missle

     Opposition fighters stand amidst the wreckage of Tripoli Street in the besieged town of Misurata

    A heavily damaged street in the rebel-held city of Misrata
    Road blocks and debris litter the once bustling Tripoli Street in Misurata
    Libyans celebrate after Tripoli fell to the rebel forces


     Libyan fighters chants slogans as they take control of Bani Walid, a Gaddafi loyalists' town in the desert some 750 km south of Tripoli

    Gaddafi's private plane lies destroyed on the runway at Tripoli airport

    Battle for Sirte

    Libyan National Transitional Council (NTC) fighters destroy Sirte's eastern gate which they say symbolised the former regime's oppression

     Libyan rebel fighters fire at pro-Gaddafi forces during the battle to liberate the city of Sirte.

    NTC forces say they have captured the University of Sirte
    Thousands of civilians remain trapped in Sirte, with many scared of retaliation attacks by NTC forces.The NTC set a deadline for them to leave before the assault began. Nonetheless, many remained in the city, unable or unwilling to leave.

    Sirte Falls to Anti-Gaddafi forces 

    Troops taking down the green flags of the Gaddafi regime and hanging in their place the flag reintroduced by Libya's interim government

    Col Gaddafi's green flags became a target for ecstatic government fighters, who chanted "Allahu akbar" (God is great").

    Internet service has been cut off in Libya for a second consecutive day as protesters step up demonstrations against longtime leader Muammar Gaddafi.
    The US has asked its citizens to defer their non-essential travel to Libya.
    British Foreign Secretary William Hague urged Libya on Saturday to stop using force against protesters
    The UN Security Council on Tuesday 22.02.2011condemned Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi's crackdown on anti government protesters and demanded an immediate end to the violence.

    Rebels awaiting counter-attack by Muammar Gaddafi's forces

    Undeterred by the brutal military action, protesters, who have gained control of several eastern cities, advanced closer to 68-year-old Gaddafi's stronghold of Tripoli.

    As Gaddafi struggles for control, Libyan city of Benghazi has fallen to his opposition.

     Citizens of Libya have took control in Benghazi and invited themselves to a once restricted area, Gaddafi's palac

     Citizens, expats, and even troops are fleeing the country as unrest intensifies in Libya.
     The Indian Government on Thursday24.02.2011 decided to immediately commence evacuation of Indians from Libya by sea and air

    The first Air India flight sent to evacuate Indians from strife-torn Libya has taken off from Tripoli for New Delhi. Air India has sent two planes to Tripoli and both flights are expected to land in New Delhi with the first batch of 700 stranded Indian citizens later on Saturday night or early Sunday morning26.02.11 0r 27.02.11
    Embattled Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi was pushed further to the brink as opposition forces on Monday28.02.2011 stormed close to the capital Tripoli and the international community stepped up pressure on him to leave the country to bring an end to the fighting that has claimed at least 1,000 lives.
    Unrest continued in and around the capital, with three key areas close to the east of Tripoli falling to opposition forces advancing from Az-Zawiyah, just 50 kms west of the capital, Al-Jazeera channel reported.
     Opposition forces on Monday stormed close to the Libyan capital Tripoli for a final showdown with militia still loyal to beleaguered strong-man Muammar Gaddafi

    International pressure on Moammar Gaddafi to end a crackdown on opponents escalated on Monday as his loyalists fought rebels holding the two cities closest to the capital
     Oil prices rose above $98 a barrel on Monday as Libya's violent power struggle continued to disrupt crude output in the OPEC nation

     The European Union imposed an arms embargo and other sanctions, following  US and the UN
    At least 10,000 migrant workers, mostly Egyptians but also from China, Thailand, Morocco, Turkey and elsewhere, massed at this Tunisian border town, where tent camps have been erected by the army to house the stranded laborers.                     


         People waiting to flee Libya gather at the airport in the capital Tripoli.
    In Benghazi, Libya's 2nd largest city and the stronghold of the rebellion in the east, a self-declared "interim government council" formed by the opposition headed by Gadhafi's former Justice Minister Mustafa Abdel-Jalil on 02.03.11
    In stepped-up operations, more than 50 % out of 18,000 Indians would have been pulled out of strife-torn Libya since the evacuation process started 10 days ago, MEA said on Saturday 05.03.2011

    Heavy sustained gunfire was reported from near Tripoli airport on 07.03.2011,20th day of unrest in Libya.A government official said the shots were celebratory gunfire by Muammar Gaddafi's supporters, after the military's victory in Zawiya and its presence in the oil town of Ras Lanuf in the east.

    Muhammad as-Senussi is the son of Crown Prince Hasan.  Colonel Gadaffi overthrew Muhammad as-Senussi's great uncle King Idris and his father the Crown Prince on 01.09.1969 in the Al Fateh Revolution.Gaddafi detained the Royal Family and held them under house arrest. In 1982 their house with belongings was destroyed and the family moved into a shack on the beach. In 1988, they were allowed to emigrate to theUK                                                  

    King Idris                                  Hassan Rida el-Senussi


    Exiled prince Urges World Action

    Muhammad as-Senussi speaking from his home in London, where he has lived in exile since 1988,  hailed  the rebels who have been fighting deadly battles against regime forces for more than three weeks,as "heroes".Also urged the international community to do more to help rid his nation of  Gadaffi(Muhammad as-Senussi is the son of Crown Prince Hasan.  Colonel Gadaffi overthrew Muhammad as-Senussi's great uncle King Idris and his father the Crown Prince on 01.09.1969 in the Al Fateh Revolution.Gaddafi detained the Royal Family and held them under house arrest. In 1982 their house with belongings was destroyed and the family moved into a shack on the beach. In 1988, they were allowed to emigrate to theUK)



    3  BBC staff were detained, beaten and subjected to mock executions by pro-regime soldiers in Libya while attempting to reach the western city of Zawiya - BBC Report March 10, 2011

    France  on Thursday 11.03.2011 became the 1st country to recognise Libya's rebel leadership in the eastern city of Benghazi and said it would soon exchange ambassadors with the insurgents.

    The battle for control of rebel capital Benghazi looked just hours away on Thursday 17.03.2011 after the Libyan army told people to leave opposition-held locations and arms storage areas

     No mercy on traitors says Colonel Gadaffi.
    Libya leader Muammar Gaddafi says he will respond to any foreign offensive with force

    The UN Security Council voted on Thursday 17.03.2011 to impose a no-fly zone over Libya and authorize "all necessary measures" to protect civilians from attacks by Muammar Gaddafi's forces, hours after the Libyan leader vowed to crush the rebellion with a final assault on the opposition capital of Benghazi.

    Libya announces ceasefire

    Caving in to international pressure, Libya on  18.03.2011 announced an immediate ceasefire in the battle against rebels fighting to overthrow Muammar Gaddafi.
    "Libya has decided an immediate ceasefire and an immediate halt to all military operations to protect civilians in accordance with UN Security Council resolution," Libyan Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa said in a live broadcast over.

     Despite the UN resolution calling for immediate ceasefire, firing continued on number of fronts in Libya

     Libyan rebels shot down a warplane on 19.03.2011 that was bombing their eastern stronghold Saturday as the opposition accused Muammar Gaddafi's government of defying calls for an immediate cease-fire

     French fighter jets soared over a rebel-held city besieged by Moammar Gaddafi's troops on Saturday, the first mission for an international military force launched in support of the 5-week-old uprising

      Explosions and anti-aircraft fire thundered in the skies above Tripoli on early sunday 20.03.2011 but it was not clear whether they resulted from another round of cruise missile attacks by allies determined to stop Muammar Gaddafi's offensive against Libyan opposition forces

     Hours after the cruise missiles and fighter jet attacks on Libya, a defiant Muammar Gaddafi said he will fight back

    Vehicles belonging to forces loyal to Libyan leader Moamar Gaddafi explode after an air strike by coalition forces, along a road between Benghazi and Ajdabiyah on March 20, 2011
    Libyan rebels wave their flag on top of a wrecked tank belonging to Moamar Gaddafi's forces on the western entrance of Benghazi on March 20, 2011
    A Libyan rebel holds the rebellion flag as he stands over wrecked military vehicles belonging to Moamar Gaddafi forces, hit by French warplanes, on March 20, 2011, west of Benghazi

     Libyan rebels inspect wrecked military vehicles which were bombed by the French air force in al-Wayfiyah on March 20, 2011

     Libyans wave the French flag as they parade on a 155mm Howitzer belonging to Moamar Gaddafi forces in the eastern rebel-held city of Benghazi on March 21, 2011

     Western powers launched a second wave of air strikes on Libya early on Monday 21.03.2011 after halting the advance of Muammar Gaddafi's forces on Benghazi and targeting air defences to let their planes patrol the skies

     Moammar Gaddafi's palace was hit as coalition forces continued air strikes for a third day

     On board a military aircraft: US Defense Secretary Robert Gates said on Sunday 20.03.2011 that the US expects to turn control of the Libya military mission over to a coalition - probably headed either by the French and British or by NATO - "in a matter of days."

     People in Benghazi are celebrating the ongoing air strikes and thanking the West for the military intervention

     NY Times Journalists freed in Libya
    4 New York Times journalists who were reported captured by pro-government forces in Libya last week have been released, the newspaper reported on Monday 21.03.2011

    The heart of Muammar Gaddafi's compound in Tripoli lay in a shambles on Monday 21.03.2011 as the United States and allies continued their mission to dilute the Libyan leader's strength. But Gaddafi's whereabouts - and his plans after promising a "long-drawn war" - remained unknown

    People in Libya are living in constant fear of coming under attack, with 64 dead and 150 injured since the air strikes started

    Anti-aircraft fire and explosions reverberated across Tripoli for a third night on Monday  21.03.2011 and state television said several sites had come under attack in the capital

    People look at a US Air Force F-15E fighter jet after it crashed near the eastern Libyan city of Benghazi on March 22, 2011

    After days of deliberation NATO has finally decided to impose a no-fly zone over Libya

      NATO agreed late on Thursday 24.03.2011 to take over part of the military operations against Libya enforcement of the no-fly zone, after days of hard bargaining among its members

    A Libyan woman reacts with her hands written in Arabic "I love Libya" on them as she joins a rally in support of the allied air campaigns against the forces of Moammar Gadhafi, in Benghazi 23.03.2011

    Revolutionary forces rapidly moved more than 150 miles west along Libya's coastal road, seizing several towns without resistance.Rebels retook the important oil towns of Brega, Ras Lanuf and Ben Jawad, and continued on the open desert road towards Sirte, about 95 miles away.

    A Libyan rebel fighter sits in his vehicle as rebel forces move towards Muammar Gaddafi's home town, Sirte.

    Rebel forces have taken a number of government-held oil towns including Brega, Ras Lanuf and Bin Jawad in the rapid push west along 150 miles of Libya's coastal road towards Sirte.

    Nato leaders have met in Brussels to finalise arrangements for a Nato-led alliance which will take over the enforcement of the UN no-fly zone from Tuesday 29.03.2011

    Libya: NATO to take immediate control

    The 28-member NATO has announced to take over all the international operations in Libya, including military operations to enforce no-fly-zone, enforcement of arms embargo and the civilian protections.NATO Allies have decided to take on the whole military operation in Libya under the United Nations Security Council Resolution.

    India shuts down Embassy in strife-torn Libya

    India has shut down its Embassy in strife-torn Libya. The Indian Ambassador to Libya, M Manimekalai, will operate from Djerba in Tunisia.


    World Divided on Libya,India regrets bombings

    The air strikes in Libya have split world opinion with India, China and Russia expressing regret over the aggression and the Arab League saying it will reconsider its agreement to join. Is then the allied aggression justified or is it solely aimed at getting rid of Gaddafi once and for all?
    As the bombs and rockets fall over Libya, the voices against the US led Operation Odyssey Dawn are growing louder
    African nations discuss Libya crisis .
    African countries met on Friday to discuss the Libya crisis with delegates from Libya, the EU, the UN, the Arab League and the Islamic Conference.
    “The aim is to foster an exchange of views in order to take action on the situation in Libya and to seek the ways and means towards a swift solution to the crisis,” AU Commission Chairman Jean Ping said at the start of the meeting
    UAE contributes 12 planes to Libya no-fly zone 
    The United Arab Emirates has contributed 12 warplanes to the UN-backed no-fly zone over Libya, a US official said Thursday 23.03.2011.On Wednesday 22.03.2011, 5 days after the United States, Britain and France launched air strikes to protect Libyans from Moamer Kadhafi’s security forces, Qatar was the only Arab country to have offered warplanes for a no-fly zone.

    Fear and uncertainty: Libya

    The uncertainties and fear over what is to come and what is happening at present remain rife in Libya, as the coalition air strikes on military targets continue.People have been scrambling to fill up the tanks of their cars in anticipation of what appears to be a looming threat of fuel shortage - or even worse - no fuel at all.
    Long queues have built up at petrol stations

    NATO takes sole control of Libya air operations

    NATO has formally taken over full command and control of military operations against Libya from the United States, a NATO official confirmed on Thursday 31.03.2011.The mission, code-named Unified Protector, including arms embargo, a no-fly zone and protecting civilians and civilian-populated areas, will be carried out in keeping with the United Nations Security Council's resolution.

    Gaddafi's daughter sends defiant message

    From her father's compound, struck by US bombs exactly 25 years ago, Muammar Gaddafi's daughter sent a defiant message on early Friday15.04.2011 "Libya was not defeated by airstrikes then and won't be defeated now", she told a cheering crowd




    Libya has declared gold reserves worth more than $6bn at current prices, thought to be held largely at home.

    Moammar Gaddafi is accused of -
    committing grave human rights violations.
    massacring of 1,200 political prisoners in the Bouslim jail in 1996
    funding and supporting several terrorist organizations and separatist movements in Africa, the Middle East, the Far East and Latin America.

    Col Muammar Gaddafi

    • Born in Sirte, Libya 7 June 1942
    • Attended military academy in Libya, Greece and the UK
    • Seized power on 1 September 1969
    • The Green Book published in 1975
    • Married twice, with seven sons and one daugther

    Gaddafi was a huge admirer of Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser, who led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952

     In the heady days of 1969 - when he seized power in a bloodless military coup - and the early 1970s, Muammar Gaddafi was a handsome and charismatic young army officer.

    Significant Oil reserves had been discovered in Libya in the late 1950s, but the extraction was controlled by foreign petroleum companies, which set prices to the advantage of their own domestic consumers and benefited from a half share in the revenue
    Col Gaddafi demanded renegotiation of the contracts, threatening to shut off production if the oil companies refused.

    Libya became the first developing country to secure a majority share of the revenues from its own oil production. Other nations soon followed this precedent and the 1970s Arab petro-boom began.