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Tuesday, March 29, 2011

Czechoslovakia - The Dissolution

On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

 An estimated 150,000 Czech soldiers died in World War I. More than 100,000 Czech volunteers formed the Czechoslovak Legions in Russia, where they fought against the Central Powers and later against Bolshevik troops. Following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I, the independent republic of Czechoslovakia was created in 1918.This new country incorporated regions of Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Slovakia and the Carpathian Ruthenia (known as the Subcarpathian Rus at the time) with significant German, Hungarian, Polish and Ruthenian speaking minorities.
Czechoslovakia was created with the dissolution of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I (1914-18)
.On May 31, 1918, Czech and Slovak representatives in the United States signed the Pittsburgh Agreement endorsing a plan for a unified Czecho-Slovak state in which Slovakia would have its own assembly.
The Czechoslovak declaration of independence was published by the Czechoslovak National Council, signed by MasarykŠtefánikand Beneš on October 18, 1918 in Paris, and proclaimed on October 28 in Prague.
.Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk was elected the country's first president in the 1920 election.
Although Czechoslovakia was a unitary state, it provided what were at the time rather extensive rights to its minorities. However, it did not grant its minorities any territorial political autonomy.
Adolf Hitler took advantage of this opportunity and, supported by Konrad Henlein's Sudeten German Party, gained the largely German speaking Sudetenland (and its substantial Maginot Line like border fortifications), through the 1938 Munich Agreement.
Poland annexed the Zaolzie area around Český Těšín.
Hungary gained parts of Slovakia and the Subcarpathian Rus as a result of the First Vienna Award in November 1938.
The remainders of Slovakia and the Subcarpathian Rus gained greater autonomy, with the state renamed to "Czecho-Slovakia".After Nazi Germany threatened to annex part of Slovakia, allowing the remaining regions to be partitioned by Hungary and Poland, Slovakia chose to maintain its national and territorial integrity, seceding from Czecho-Slovakia in March 1939, and allying itself, as demanded by Germany, with Hitler's coalition.
The remaining Czech territory was occupied by Germany, which transformed it into the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
Subcarpathian Rus declared independence as the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine on 15 March 1939, but was invaded by Hungary the same day and formally annexed the next day.(Following a Soviet-organised referendum, the Subcarpathian Rus never returned under Czechoslovak rule, but became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, as the Zakarpattia Oblast in 1946) Approximately 345,000 Czechoslovak citizens, including 277,000 Jews, were killed or executed, while hundreds of thousands of others were sent to prisons and concentration camps or used as forced labour. Perhaps two–thirds of the Czech nation was destined either for extermination or removal.
There was Czech resistance to Nazi occupation, both at home and abroad, most notably with the assassination of Nazi leader Reinhard Heydrich in a Prague suburb on 27 May 1942. The Czechoslovak government-in-exile and its army fighting against the Germans were acknowledged by the Allies; Czechoslovak troops fought in the UK, North Africa, the Middle East and the Soviet Union. The German occupation ended on 9 May 1945, with the arrival of the Soviet and American armies and the Prague uprising. An estimated 140,000 Soviet soldiers died in the fighting for the liberation of Czechoslovakia.
In 1945–1946, almost the entire German minority in Czechoslovakia, about 2.7 million people, were expelled to Germany and Austria. During this time, thousands of Germans were held in prisons and detention camps, or used as forced labour. In the summer of 1945, there were several massacres. The only Germans not expelled were some 250,000, who had been active in the resistance against the Nazis or were considered economically important, though many of these emigrated later.

In the 1946 elections, the Communists gained 38% of the votes and became the largest party in the Czechoslovak parliament. They formed a coalition government with other parties of the National Front and moved quickly to consolidate power. The decisive step took place in February 1948, during a series of events characterized by Communists as a "revolution" and by anti-Communists as a "takeover", the Communist People's Militias secured control of key locations in Prague, and a new, all-Communist government was formed.
For the next 41 years, Czechoslovakia was a Communist state.In November 1989, Czechoslovakia returned to a liberal democracy through the peaceful "Velvet Revolution".

Czechoslovakia's Dissolution into -Czech Republic and Slovakia

Czech Republic Government
The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy, with the Prime Minister as head of government. The Parliament is bicameral, with the Chamber of Deputies  (200 members) and the Senate (81 members)

Czech Parliament

The President of the Czech Republic is selected by a joint session of the parliament for a five-year term, with no more than two consecutive terms. The president is a formal head of state.The Prime Minister is the head of government.The members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected for a four year term by proportional representation.The members of the Senate are elected in single-seat constituencies by two-round runoff voting for a six-year term, with one-third elected every even year in the autumn.The Senate is unpopular among the public and suffers from low election turnout.

Czech Republic                                                                                                 
       Flag Of Czech Republic                                                             

    Official Languages : German;Greek;Hungarian;Polish;Romani;Russian;Rusyn;Serbian;Slovak & Ukrainian
    Ethnic Groups :Czechs 90% ;Moravians 4% ; Slovaks 2% & Others 4%
    Population : 10674947 ( 2010 Estimate)
    Currency : Czech Kronar

The Czech Republic has one of the least religious populations on Earth. Historically, the Czech people have been characterised as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion".[74] According to the 2001 census, 59% of the country is agnostic, atheist or irreligious, 26.8% is Roman Catholic and 2.5% is Protestant.

Economy Of Czech Republic
The Czech Republic possesses a developed, high-income economy with a GDP per capita of 82% of the European Union average. One of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states.Most of the economy has been privatised, including the banks and telecommunications. The current centre-right government plans to continue with privatisation, including the energy industry and the Prague airport.
The Czech Republic has the most Wi-Fi subscribers in the European Union.

 Škoda Auto more commonly known as Škoda, is an automobile manufacturer based in the Czech Republic. Škoda became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group in 2000, positioned as the entry brand to the group.

Skoda Auto - 6 plants (4 in Europe, 2 in India)

             Skoda Fabia II ( 2007)

       Skoda Superb II (2008)






Škoda Yeti (2009)










The Czech Republic has a rich scientific tradition. Important inventions include the modern contact lens, the separation of modern blood types, and the production of the Semtex plastic explosive.

The country is part of the Schengen Area, having abolished border controls, completely opening its borders with all of its neighbours, Germany, Austria, Poland and Slovakia, on 21 December 2007.                                                                          

Czechoslovakia's membership in the United Nations ceased upon dissolution of the country, but on 19 January 1993 the Czech and Slovak Republics were admitted to the UN as new and separate states.


Initially the old Czechoslovak currency, the Czechoslovak koruna, was  used in both countries.
Fears of economic loss on the Czech side caused the two states to adopt two national currencies as early as 8 February 1993.
 At the beginning, the currencies had an equal exchange rate, but later on, for most of the time, the value of the Slovak koruna was lower than that of the Czech koruna (up to ca. 30%, in 2004 around 25–27%). 
On 1 January 2009 Slovakia adopted the euro as its currency.


People of both countries were allowed to cross the border without a passport and were allowed to work anywhere without the need to obtain an official permit. Border checks were completely removed on 21 December 2007 when both countries joined the Schengen Agreement.

The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe,bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south.


          Flag Of Slovakia                                                                                                   


Capital :Bratislava
Population :5429763( 2010 Estimate )
Ethnic Groups:  Slovak         86% ;
                        Hungarian   10%  
                        Others         4%
Official Language : Slovak
Currency             : Euro

Slovakia is a parliamentary democratic republic with a multi-party system.The Slovak head of state is the president elected by direct popular vote for a  5 year term.

Slovakia's Presidential Palace in Bratislava

Slovakia's highest legislative body is the 150-seat unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic Delegates are elected for a 4 year term on the basis of proportional representation.

The Slovak constitution guarantees freedom of religion.Roman Catholics-60.4% ;nonreligious or atheist - 9.6% ;Protestant-6% ; Greek Catholic - 4.1% ; Eastern Orthodox -0.9% and 19% chose "other" to identify themselves.

The Slovak economy is considered an advanced economy, with the country dubbed the "Tatra Tiger". Slovakia transformed from a centrally planned economy to a market-driven economy.
Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in private hands, and foreign investment has risen.Slovakia has recently been characterized by sustained high economic growth.
In 2006, Slovakia achieved the highest growth of GDP (8.9%) among the members of the OECD.
Slovakia's GDP comes mainly from the tertiary (services) sector, the industrial sector also plays an important role within its economy.
The main industry sectors are car manufacturing and electrical engineering.
Since 2007, Slovakia has been the world's largest producer of cars per capita, with a total of 571,071 cars manufactured in the country in 2007 alone.There are currently three automobile assembly plants: Volkswagen's in Bratislava, PSA Peugeot Citroen's in Trnava and Kia Motors' Žilina Plant.

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